New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Rosa

Rosa palustris
Rosa rugosa Thunb.
Rosa carolina
Rosa rugosa Thunb.
Rosa multiflora
Rosa rugosa Thunb.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/11/2013

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Nomenclature

Rosa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 491. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 217. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Rosa centifolia L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913), Rosa cinnamomea L., Britton & Wilson (1923), or Rosa canina L., Rehder (1949).

Key to the species of Rosa

1. Styles united into a column, protruding from the orifice of the hypanthium; stems climbing or trailing...2
1. Styles distinct, only slightly if at all exserted, usually only the stigma is exserted; erect to arching, usually colonial shrubs...4

2. Flowers pink; leaflets 3 or 5; stipules entire or nearly so...Rosa setigera
2. Flowers white; leaflets 7 or 9...3

3. Stipules pectinate and glandular-toothed...Rosa multiflora
3. Stipules dentate...Rosa wichuriana

4. Outer sepals pinnatifid or at least with narrow lateral lobes...5
4. Outer sepals entire...7

5. Lower leaf surfaces glabrous or nearly so; leaf teeth glandless...Rosa canina
5. Lower leaf surfaces glandular; leaf teeth glandular...6

6. Styles pubescent; sepals erect and persistant in fruit...Rosa eglanteria
6. Styles glabrous; sepals soon deciduous...Rosa micrantha

7. Leaflets rugose, densely soft-pubescent beneath; young branches, thorns, leaf rachises, and pedicels densely pubescent...Rosa rugosa
7. Leaflets not rugose, glabrous, or slightly pubescent beneath; young branches, thorns, and often other parts glabrous or stipitate-glandular...8

8. Infrastipular thorns strong and slightly curved toward the base of the plant; internodal thorns or prickles absent or occasional at base of plant...11
8. Infrastipular thorns absent or straight; internodal spines often of similar shape and size...9

9. Sepals persistent and connivent as a beak on fruit; flowers borne on lateral branches from stems of previous year; prickles absent or confined to base...Rosa blanda
9. Sepals deciduous in fruit; flowers borne on current year’s stems; prickles found throughout the stem...10

10. Stems with hundreds or thousands of prickles; stipules herbaceous, expanded above...Rosa nitida
10. Stems with few prickles; stipules fine, linear...Rosa carolina

11. Pedicels and hypanthia smooth, glabrous; sepals erect on the mature fruit...12
11. Pedicels and hypanthia glandular-hispid; sepals widely spreading on mature fruit...13

12. Flowers double...Rosa majalis
12. Flowers single...Rosa cinnamomea

13. Leaves finely serrate; stipules firm, linear, or with parallel sides...Rosa palustris
13. Leaves coarsely serrate; stipules herbaceous, dilated toward the apex...Rosa virginiana

List of Rosa Species

References to Rosa

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  • Becker, H. F. 1963. The fossil record of the genus Rosa. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 99-110.
  • Belder, J. 1980. Nomenclatural difficulties of Rosa virginiana. Gartn.-Bot. Briefe 63: 32-3. (In German; English summary)
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  • Best, G. N. 1890. Remarks on the group Cinnamomeae of the North American roses. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 17: 142-9.
  • Bond, T. E. T. 1945. On sepal phyllody in roses and some related phenomena. Experimental data and a quantitative interpretation. New Phyt. 44: 220-30.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1937. Introduction a l'etude du genre Rosa. Les caracteres morphologiques passes en revue au point de vue de leur valeur pour la systematique. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat 14: 241-73. (In French; see also revisions of certain sects. in vols. 9, 10, 12, 13, 14.)
  • Boutineau, E. 1883. De la fleur des Rosacees. Contribution a l'etude des ovaires inferes. Paris. , 44 pages.
  • Boynton, K. R. 1931. Rosa rugosa. Addisonia 16: 91-2 [19-20], pl. 522.
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  • Crepin, F. 1887. Nouvelles remarques sur les roses americaines. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 26: 40-9. (See also Ibid. 28(2):18-33. 1889.)
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  • Crepin, F. 1896. Rosae americanae I. Observation upon the genus Rosa in North America. Bot. Gaz. 22: 1-34.
  • Crepin, F. 1869. Primitia monographiae rosarum. Materiaux pour servir a l'histoire des roses. 856 pp. Gand [Ghent], Belgium. 1869-1882.
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  • Dirr, M. A. 1978. Tolerance of seven woody ornamentals to soil-applied sodium chloride. J. Arboric. 4(7): 162-5.
  • Drummond, B. A. 2005. The selection of native and invasive plants by frugivorous birds in Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 33-44.
  • Eckardt, N. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for Rosa multiflora - rambler rose.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1928. Ten new American species and varieties of Rosa. Rhodora 30: 109-21.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1938. Phylogeny and polyploidy in Rosa. New Phyt. 37: 72-81.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1931. Sterility in wild roses and in some species hybrids. Genetics 16: 75-96.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1929. Cytological conditions and evidences for hybridity in North American wild roses. Bot. Gaz. 87: 443-506.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1929. The phenological procession in North American wild roses in relation to the polyploid series. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 11: 137-50.
  • Erlanson, E. W. 1934. Experimental data for a revision of the North American wild roses. Bot. Gaz. 96: 197-259.
  • Evans, J. E. 1983. A literature review of management practices for multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora). Natural Areas Journal 3: 6-15.
  • Fagerlind, F. 1951. Influence of the pollen-giver on the production of hips, achenes and seeds in the "Canina roses". Acta Horti Berg. 16: 121-68.
  • Fagerlind, F. 1958. Hip and seed formation in newly formed Rosa polyploids. Acta Horti Berg. 17: 229-56.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1948. Some minor forms of Rosa. Rhodora 50(594): 145-7.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1918. Rosa blanda and its allies of northern Maine and adjacent Canada. Rhodora 20(233): 90-6.
  • Flory, W. S. 1950. Pollen condition in some species and hybrids of Rosa with a consideration of associated phylogenetic factors. Virginia J. Sci. 1: 11-59.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1945. A botanist looks at a rose. J. New York Bot. Gard. 46: 215-20.
  • Grossi, C.; Raymond, O.; Jay, M. 1998. Flavonoid and enzyme polymorphisms and taxonomic organisation of Rosa sections: Carolinae, Cinnamomeae, Pimpinellifoliae and Synstylae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 26: 857-871.
  • Gustafsson, Å. 1944. The constitution of the Rosa canina complex. Hereditas 30: 405-28.
  • Harkness, J. 1980. Rose classification. The Plantsman 2(3): 179-81.
  • Heath, P. V. 1997. Commentary on the proposal to reject Rosa eglanteria Linne, with supplementary proposals to amend and authorize. Calyx 5: 121-6.
  • Heath, P. V. 1992. The type of Rosa carolina Linne. Calyx 2(2): 80.
  • Herring, P. 1925. Classifications of Rosa. Dansk Bot. Ark. 4(9): 1-24.
  • Herron, P.M. et.al. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Huebner, C. D. 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea 68: 1-14.
  • Hunter, J. C.; Mattice, J. A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 220-227.
  • Hurst, C. C. 1941. Notes on the origin and evolution of our garden roses. II. Modern garden roses (1800-1940). J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 66: 242-50, 282-9.
  • Hurst, C. C. 1941. Notes on the origin and evolution of our garden roses. I. Ancient garden roses (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1800). J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 66: 73-82.
  • Jackson, G. 1934. The morphology of the flowers of Rosa and certain closely related genera. Amer. J. Bot. 21: 453-66.
  • Jackson, G. 1926. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of Rosa and certain closely related genera. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY56 figs. + 33 p.
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  • Lewis, W. H. 1958. A monograph of the genus Rosa in North America. III. R. setigera. Southw. Naturalist 3: 154-74.
  • Lewis, W. H. 2008. Rosa carolina (rosaceae) subspecies and hybrids in eastern and midwestern United States, Canada, and Mexico. Novon 18: 192-198.
  • Lewis, W. H. 1957. A monograph of the genus Rosa in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Ph.D. Thesis Univ. Virginia459 p. (Diss. Abstr. 17:2389. 1957.)
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  • Lewis, W. H. 1970. Species roses in the United States and their relation to modern roses. Amer. Rose Ann. 55: 78-85.
  • Lewis, W. H. 1958. Minor forms of North American species of Rosa. Rhodora 60(717): 237-43.
  • Lotowycz, B. 1994. An occurrence of Rosa nitida on Long Island. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 4: 2.
  • Lundgren, M. R. 2004. Influence of land use and site characteristics on invasive plant abundance in the Quinebaug Highlands of southern New England. Northeastern Naturalist 11: 313-332.
  • Masse, R. J.; Vulinec, K. 2010. Possible impact of multiflora rose on breeding-bird diversity in riparian forest fragments of central Delaware. Northeastern Naturalist 17: 647-658.
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  • Rydberg, P. A. 1923. Rosa palustris. Addisonia 8: 37-8.
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