Genus: Taxus

Taxus baccata
Taxus baccata   L.  -  English Yew
Photo © by Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Taken by G. A. Kalmbacher.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/19/2013

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Taxus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1040. 1753. Gen. Pl. 462. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Taxus baccata L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Taxus


List of Taxus Species

References to Taxus

  • Allison, T. D. 1993. Self-fertility in Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120: 115-20.
  • Allison, T. D. 1990. Pollen production and plant density affect seed production in Taxus canadensis. Ecology 71: 516-22.
  • Allison, T. D. 1990. The influence of deer browsing on the reproductive biology of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.) II. Pollen limitation: An indirect effect. Oecologia 83: 530-4.
  • Allison, T. D. 1991. Variation in sex expression in Canada yew (Taxus canadensis). Amer. J. Bot. 78(4): 569-78.
  • Allison, T. D. 1987. The reproductive biology of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.) and its modification by herbivory. Ph.D. Thesis Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN,
  • Allison, T. D. 1990. The influence of deer browsing on the reproductive biology of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.) I. Direct effect on pollen, ovule, and seed production. Oecologia 83: 523-9.
  • Allison, T. D. 1992. The influence of deer browsing on the reproductive biology of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.) III. Sex expression. Oecologia 89: 223-8.
  • Allison, T. D. 2008. Further studies on sex expression in Taxus canadensis Marshall. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 135: 70-80.
  • Andre, D. 1956. Contribution a l'Etude morphologique du cone femelle de quelques gymnospermes (Cephalotaxees, Juniperoidees, Taxacees). Nat. Monspel. Bot. 8: 3-35. (In French)
  • Bialobok, S. (eds.) (1978): 1978. The yew - Taxus baccata L. Foreign Scientific Publications Dept. of the National Center for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information, Warsaw, Poland. , 183 pages.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Chadwick, L. C.; Keen, R. A. 1976. A study of the genus Taxus.
  • Collins, D.; Mill, R. D.; Moller, M. 2003. Species seperation of Taxus baccata, T. canadensis, and T. cuspidata (Taxaceae) and origins of their reputed hybrids inferred from RAPD and CPDNA data. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 175-182.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Cope, E. A. 1998. Taxaceae: the genera and cultivated species. Bot. Rev. 64: 291-322.
  • Corradini, P. 2002. Architectural and genotypic variation in the clonal shrub Taxus canadensis as determined from random amplified polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism. Canad. J. Bot. 80: 205-219.
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Dark, S. O. S. 1932. Chromosomes of Taxus, Sequoia, Cryptomeria, and Thuya. Ann. Bot. 46: 965-77.
  • Di Sapio, O. A.; Gattuso, S. J.; Gattuso, M. A. 1997. Morphoanatomical characters of Taxus baccata bark and leaves. Fitoterapia 68: 252-60.
  • Diehl, W. W.; Fosberg, F. R. 1950. Taxus in piedmont Virginia. Castanea 15: 129-31.
  • Dupler, A. 1917. The gametophytes of Taxus canadensis Marsh. Bot. Gaz. 64: 115-36.
  • Dupler, A. 1920. Ovuliferous structures of Taxus canadensis. Bot. Gaz. 69: 492-520.
  • Dupler, A. W. 1920. Staminate strobilus of Taxus canadensis. Bot. Gaz. 68: 345-66.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Favre-Duchartre, M. 1958. Contribution a l'Etude de la reproduction sexuee chez Taxus baccata. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 246: 979-82.
  • Ferguson, D. K. 1978. Some current research of fossil and recent taxads. Rev. Palaeob. Palynol. 26: 213-26.
  • Fett-Neto, A. G.; DiCosmo, F. 1992. Distribution and amounts of taxol in different shoot parts of Taxus cuspidata. Pl. Med. (Stuttgart) 58: 464-6.
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Florin, R. 1948. On the morphology and relationships of the Taxaceae. Bot. Gaz. 110: 31-9.
  • Gonsoulin, G. 1975. Taxus canadensis Marsh.: a new state record for Tennessee. Castanea 40: 253-5.
  • Hartzell, H. 1991. The Yew tree. Hulogosi, Eugene, OR. , 320 pages.
  • Hill, T. G.; De Fraine, E. 1908. On the seedling structure of gymnosperms. I. Ann. Bot. 22: 689-712.
  • Jõger, L. 1899. Beitrõge zur Kenntniss der Endospermbildung und zur Embryologie von Taxus baccata. Flora 86: 241-88. (In German)
  • Keen, R. A. 1956. A study of the genus Taxus. Ph.D. Thesis Ohio State University, Columbus, OH,
  • Keen, R. A.; Chadwick, L. C. 1955. Sex reversal in Taxus. Amer. Nurseryman 100(6): 13-4.
  • Khan, A. G.; Valder, P. G. 1972. Occurence of root nodules in Ginkgoales, Taxales, and Coniferales. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 97: 35-41.
  • Kwei, Y. L.; Hu, Y. S. 1974. Epidermal feature of the leaves of Taxus in relation to taxonomy. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 329-334. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Li, J.; Davis, C. C.; Del Tredici, P.; Donoghue, M. J. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of Taxus (Taxaceae) inferred from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Harvard Papers in Botany 6: 267-274.
  • Lotova, L. I. 1979. The bark structure of Taxaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, and Podocarpaceae. Vestn. Moskovsk. Univ., Ser. 6, Biol. 1979(3): 3-13. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Martell, A. M. 1974. Canada yew: Taxus canadensis Marsh. In: Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. USDA Forest Service. , 158-60 pages.
  • Mazzeo, P. M. 1971. Taxus canadensis rediscovered in the Virginia piedmont. Castanea 36: 164-5.
  • McDowell, G. W. 1969. American yew in North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 85: 16-7.
  • Melzack, R. N.; Watts, D. 1982. Variations in seed weight, germination, and seedling vigour in the yew (Taxus baccata L.) in England. J. Biogeogr. 9: 55-63.
  • Nicolosi, R. T.; Lineberger, R. D. 1982. Differentiation of Taxus species and selected cultivars based on leaf and pollen surface characters. (abstract), 79th Annual meeting of the Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Ames, IA. Hortscience 17: 521.
  • Niklas, K. J. 1985. Wind pollination of Taxus cuspidata. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 1-13.
  • Pacini, E.; Franchi, G. G.; Ripaccioli, M. 1999. Ripe pollen structure and histochemistry of some gymnosperms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 217: 81-99.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Pennell, R. I.; Bell, P. R. 1985. Microsporogenesis in Taxus baccata: the development of the archaesporium. Ann. Bot. 56: 415-28.
  • Pennell, R. I.; Bell, P. R. 1986. Microsporogenesis in Taxus baccata: the formation of the tetrad and development of the microspores. Ann. Bot. 57: 545-56.
  • Pennell, R. I.; Bell, P. R. 1986. The development of the male gametophyte and spermatogenesis in Taxus baccata. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B Biol. Sci. 228: 85-96.
  • Pennell, R. I.; Bell, P. R. 1987. Megasporogenesis and the subsequent cell lineage within the ovule of Taxus baccata L. Ann. Bot. 59: 693-704.
  • Pennell, R. I.; Bell, P. R. 1988. Insemination of the archegonium and fertilization in Taxus baccata L. J. Cell Sci. 89: 551-60.
  • Pielou, E. C. 1988. The world of northern evergreens. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. , 174 pages.
  • Pilger, R. 1917. Kritische Ubersicht uber die neuere Literatur betreffend dir Familie der Taxaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 1-43. (In German)
  • Pilger, R. 1909. Die Morphologie des weiblichen Blutensprosschens von Taxus. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 241-50. (In German)
  • Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Taxaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 69-91.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1923. New species, varieties and combinations from the herbarium and collections at the Arnold Arboretum. J. Arnold Arbor. 4: 107-16.
  • Russin, W. A. et al. 1995. Immunocytochemical localization in Taxus cuspidata. Int. J. Plant Sci. 156(5): 668-78.
  • Sahni, B. 1920. On certain archaic features in the seed of Taxus baccata, with remarks on the antiquity of Taxineae. Ann. Bot. 34: 117-33.
  • Spjut, R. W. 2007. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Taxus (Taxaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 203-289.
  • Spjut, R. W. 2007. A phytogeographical analysis of Taxus (Taxaceae) based on leaf anatomical characters. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 291-332.
  • Stachowicz, J. J.; Allison, T. D. 1995. Vegetation, browsing, and site factors as determinants of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis) distribution in central New Hampshire. Rhodora 97: 357-74.
  • Sterling, C. 1948. Gametophyte development in Taxus cuspidata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 75: 147-65.
  • Sterling, C. 1949. Embryonic differentiation in Taxus cuspidata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 116-33.
  • Sterling, C. 1948. Proembryogeny and early embryology in Taxus cuspidata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 75: 469-85.
  • Sullivan, J. 1993. Taxus canadensis. ()
  • Takaso, T. 1990. "Pollination drop" time at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 50: 2-7.
  • Tarbaeva, V. M. 1994. Structure of seeds and seed coats in species of Taxaceae. Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow) 170: 95-102. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Voliotis, D. 1987. Historical and environmental significance of the yew (Taxus baccata L.). Israel J. Bot. 35: 47-52.
  • Voliotis, D. 1986. Historical and environmental significance of the yew (Taxus baccata L.). Israel J. Bot. 35(1): 47-52.
  • Wang, F. H.; Chen, Z. K.; Hu, Y. S. 1979. On the systematic position of Taxaceae from embryological and anatomical studies. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(3): 1-7. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Wilson, P.; Buonopane, M.; Allison, T. D. 1996. Reproductive biology of the monoecious clonal shrub Taxus canadensis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 7-15.
  • Windels, S. K.; Flaspohler, D. J. 2011. The ecology of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis Marsh.): a review. Botany 89: 1-17.
  • Xi, Y. Z. 1986. Studies on pollen morphology of Taxaceae of China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24: 247-52. (In Chinese; English summary)