New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Viola

Viola arvensis
Viola blanda
Viola brittoniana
Viola pedata
Viola primulifolia
Viola pubescens
Viola labradorica
Viola lanceolata
Viola macloskeyi
Viola sagittata
Viola rostrata
Viola canadensis
Viola rotundifolia
Viola pubescens

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/20/2013

Back to Violaceae


Viola Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 933. 1753.

List of Viola Species

References to Viola

  • Antlfinger, A. E. 1985. Environmental and genetic determinants of plant size in Viola sororia. Evolution 39: 1053-1064.
  • Ballard, H. E. 1990. Hybrids among three caulescent violets, with special reference to Michigan. Michigan Bot. 29: 43-54.
  • Ballard, H. E. 1998. Shrinking the violets: Phylogenetic relationships of infrageneric groups in Viola (Violaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences. Syst. Bot. 23: 439-458.
  • Banasinska, A.; Kuta, E. 1996. Allogamy in Viola odorata L. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica 38: 41-51.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1995. Variation in the annual dormancy cycle in buried seeds of the weedy winter annual Viola arvensis. Weed Research 35: 353-362.
  • Camp, W. H. 1947. Distribution patterns in modern plants and the problems of ancient dispersals. Ecol. Monogr. 17: 161-83.
  • Camp, W. H. 1961. The pattern of variability and evolution in plants. In: A Darwin Centenary. The Botanical Society of the British Isles, London. , 44-70 pages.
  • Canne, J. M. 1987. Determinations of chromosome numbers in Viola Violaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 653-655.
  • Chancellor, R. J. 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 Years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation.
  • Cook, R. E.; Lyons, E. E. 1983. The biology of Viola fimbriatula in a natural disturbance. Ecology 64: 654-660.
  • Cortes-Palomec, A. C. 2006. Population genetic structure in temperate and tropical species of Viola (Violaceae) with a mixed breeding system. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 503-512. ((V. striata))
  • Cortes-Palomec, A. C.; Ballard, H. E. 2006. Influence of annual fluctuations in environmental conditions on chasmogamous flower production in Viola striata. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133: 312-320.
  • Culley, T. M. 2002. Reproductive biology and delayed selfing in Viola pubescens (Violaceae), an understory herb with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 113-122.
  • Culley, T. M. 2000. Inbreeding depression and floral type fitness differences in Viola canadensis (Violaceae), a species with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Canad. J. Bot. 78: 1420-1429.
  • Culley, T. M.; Grubb, T. C. 2003. Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation in Viola pubescens (Violaceae), a perennial herb with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Molec. Ecol. 12: 2919-2930.
  • Curtis, W. F. 1984. Photosynthetic potential of sun and shade Viola spp. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 1273-1278.
  • Detjen, L. R. 1920. Pelorias in Viola primulaefolia Linn. Torreya 20: 107-116.
  • Doohan, D. J. 1991. Factors influencing germination of field violet Viola arvensis. Weed Science 39: 601-606.
  • Doohan, D. J.; Monaco, T. J. 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds 99. Viola arvensis Murr. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 72: 187-201.
  • Gates, B. N. 1943. Carunculate seed dissemination by ants. Rhodora 45: 438-445.
  • Gil-Ad, N. L. 1998. The micromorphologies of seed coats and petal trichomes of the taxa of Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae (Violaceae) and their utility in discerning orthospecies from hybrids. Brittonia 50: 91-121.
  • Griffith, C. 1998. The response of Viola blanda Willd. (Violaceae) to phosphorus fertilization and shading. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 194-198.
  • Handel, S. N.; Fisch, S. B.; Schatz, G. E. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 430-437.
  • Kapoor, B. M. 1987. Annotated list of the chromosome numbers of the vascular flora of northeastern America V. Naturaliste Canad. 114: 105-116.
  • Lehr, J. H. 1964. Viola papiliionaceae Pursh forma Michaeli E. Creutz. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 334-335.
  • Little, R. J. 1996. Nomenclatural correction in Viola (Violaceae). Phytologia 80: 295.
  • Little, R. J.; McKinney, L. E. 2010. Four nomenclatural changes in Viola (Violaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4: 225-226.
  • McKinney, L. E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North America. (ISSN: 0883-1475)
  • McKinney, L. E.; Russell, N. H. 2002. Violaceae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 67: 369-379.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Pollard, C. L. 1896. The purple-flowered, stemless violets of the Atlantic coast. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 10: 85-92.
  • Ruhren, S.; Handel, S. N. 2003. Herbivory constrains survival, reproduction and mutualisms when restoring nine temperate forest herbs. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 34-42.
  • Russell, N. H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of Central and Eastern United States: An introductory survey. Sida 2: 1-113.
  • Solbrig, O. T. 1988. Studies on the population biology of the genus Viola VI. The demography of Viola fimbriatula and Viola lanceolata. J. Ecol. 76: 301-319.
  • Solbrig, O. T. 1980. The population biology of the genus Viola 1. The demography of Viola sororia. J. Ecol. 68: 521-546.
  • Tessier, J. T. 2008. Leaf habit, phenology, and longevity of 11 forest understory plant species in Algonquin State Forest, northwest Connecticut, USA. Botany 86: 457-465.
  • Thompson, D. A.; Beattie, A. J. 1981. Density mediated seed and stolon production in Viola Violaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 383-388.
  • Valentine, D. H. 1981. Hybrids between Viola adunca and Viola conspersa. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1364-1365.
  • Yockteng, R. 2003. Relationships among pansies (Viola section Melanium) investigated using ITS and ISSR narkers. Pl. Syst. Evol. 241: 153-170.
  • Zika, P. F. 2003. Notes on the provenance of some eastern wetland species disjunct in western North America. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 43-46.