Genus: Rhus

Rhus aromatica
Rhus aromatica Ait. 

By Susan Pell

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 08/02/2013

Back to Anacardiaceae


Rhus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 265. 1753.

Key to the species of Rhus


List of Rhus Species

References to Rhus

  • Anonymous 1880. Adventitious leaves in Rhus Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 7: 91.
  • Anonymous 1974. Rhus glabra L.: Smooth sumac, scarlet sumac, member of the family Anacardiaceae. Davidsonia 5(3): 32-4.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1937. A monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies in North and Central America, including the West Indies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24: 265-498.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1938. Studies in the Anacardiaceae. III. A note concerning the status of Rhus pulvinata Greene (R. glabra x typhina Koehne). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 19: 598-600.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1940. Schmaltzia. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 24: 647-65.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1957. Generic key to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). Lloydia 20: 255-65.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1965. A criticism of the traditional concept of the genus Rhus. Prospects of Iraq Biology 3: 52-58.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1937. A monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies in North and Central America, including West Indies. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 24: 265-498.
  • Barkley, F. A.; Barkley, E. D. 1938. A short history of Rhus to the time of Linnaeus. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 19: 265-333.
  • Bogacinski, B.; Molski, B. 1969. Morphology and anatomy of the sumac fruit - Rhus typhina L., Tourn. Roczn. Dendrol. 23: 165-183. (In Polish; English summary)
  • Boyd, I. L. 1943. Germination tests on four species of sumac. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 46: 85-6.
  • Boyd, I. L. 1944. An ecological study of four species of sumac in relation to development and growth on eroded soil. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 47: 51-59.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1962. The genera of Anacardiaceae in the Southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 359-75.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1963. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 60-80.
  • Campbell, T. A. 1984. Agronomic and chemical evaluation of smooth sumac, Rhus glabra. Econ. Bot. 38(2): 218-23.
  • Carr, M. E.; Roth, W. B.; Bagby, M. O. 1986. Potential resource materials from Ohio plants. Econ. Bot. 40(4): 434-41.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Vine photosynthesis and relationships to climbing mechanics in a forest understory. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 1011-8.
  • Chung, J. C.; Waller, D. M. 1986. Patterns of insect predation on seeds of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra L.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 116: 315-22.
  • Clarke, I. D.; Rogers, J. S.; Sievers, A. F.; Hopp, H. 1949. Tannin content and other characteristics of native sumac in relation to its value as a commercial source of tannin.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Rhus copallina. ()
  • Davis, W. T. 1886. Fasciation in Ailanthus and Sumach. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assoc. Staten Island December, 1986
  • Dirr, M. A. 1978. Tolerance of seven woody ornamentals to soil-applied sodium chloride. J. Arboric. 4(7): 162-5.
  • Doorenbos, N. J.; Box, C. O. 1976. Cultivation of Rhus glabra L. and Rhus copallina L. J. Mississippi Acad. Sci. 21: 55-7.
  • Doust, J. L.; Doust, L. L. 1988. Modules of production and reproduction in a dioecious clonal shrub, Rhus typhina. Ecology 69: 741-50.
  • Engler, A. 1881. Uber die morphologischen Verholtnisse und die geographische Verbreitung der Gattung Rhus, wie der mit ihr verwandten, lebenden und ausgestrobenen Anacardiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 365-426. (In German)
  • Farmer, R. E.; Lockley, G. C.; Cunningham, M. 1982. Germination patterns of the sumacs, Rhus glabra and R. copallina: effects of scarification time, temperature and genotype. Seed Sci. Tech. 10: 223-231.
  • Foster, B. L.; Gross, K. L. 1999. Temporal and spatial patterns of woody plant establishment in Michigan old fields. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 229-243.
  • Frankel, E. 1991. Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and their relatives. The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA. , 98 pages. (For review see Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(1):76. 1993.)
  • Freeman, D. C. 2004. Developmental instability in Rhus copallinum L.: multiple stressors, years, and responses. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 53-63.
  • Freeman, D. C. 2004. Photosynthesis and fluctuating asymmetry as indicators of plant response to soil disturbance in the fall-line sandhills of Georgia: a case study using Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 805-816.
  • Gallant, J. B.; Kemp, J. R.; Lacroix, C. R. 1998. Floral development of dioecious staghorn sumac, Rhus hirta (Anacardiaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 159: 539-549.
  • Gilbert, E. F. 1966. Structure and development of sumac clones. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 75: 432-45. (see also Larch & Sakai in Mich. Bot. 22: 3-9, 1983)
  • Gilbert, E. F. 1961. Phenology of sumacs. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 66: 286-300.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1995. Honeybees (Apis) and bumblebees (Bombus) visiting Rhus glabra L. flowers.
  • Graber, J. W.; Bowers, P. M. 1981. Dwarf sumac as winter bird food. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 105: 410-2.
  • Greene, E. 1906. A study of Rhus glabra. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 8: 167-96.
  • Greene, E. 1905. Segregates of the genus Rhus. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 114-44.
  • Hall, B. A. 1947. The floral anatomy of the Aceraceae and some related families. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY25 plates + 82 p.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Phillips, L. L. 1985. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, VII.Rhus subg. Rhus (Anacardiaceae) of North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112: 1-10.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Phillips, L. L. 1985. Hybridization in eastern North American Rhus (Anacardiaceae). ASB Bull. 32(3): 99-106.
  • Heimsch, C. Jr. 1940. Wood anatomy and pollen morphology of Rhus and allied genera. J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 279-91.
  • Hoyt, S. F. 1957. Ecology of the pileated woodpecker. Ecology 38: 246-56.
  • Ibe, R. A.; Leis, R. A. 1979. Pollen morphology of the Anacardiaceae of northeastern North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 106: 140-4.
  • Jaquish, L. L.; Ewers, F. W. 2001. Seasonal conductivity and embolism in the roots and stems of two clonal ring-porous trees, Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) and Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 206-212.
  • Jeune, B. 1987. MorphogenÞse foliaire du Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 9: 445-57. (In French)
  • Kartesz, J. T.; Gandhi, K. N. 1991. Nomenclatural notes on North American flora. Phytologia 71: 87-100.
  • Larch, C. M.; Sakal, A. K. 1983. Successional and clonal changes at sites of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra). Michigan Bot. 22: 3-9.
  • Li, X 1999. Comparative seed biology of several North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Kentucky, Lexington,
  • Li, X; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1999. Comparative morphology and physiology of fruit and seed development in the two shrubs Rhus aromatica and R. glabra (Anacardiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1217-1225.
  • Li, X; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1999. Pericarp ontogeny and anatomy in Rhus aromatica Ait. and R. glabra L. (Anacardiaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 279-288.
  • Li, X; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1999. Contrasting soil seed-bank dynamics in relation to local recruitment modes in two clonal shrubs, Rhus aromatica Ait. And R. glabra L. (Anacardiaceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 266-280.
  • Li, X; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1999. Anatomy of two mechanisms of breaking physical dormancy by experimental treatments in seeds of two North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1505-1511.
  • Little, E. L. 1945. Miscellaneous notes on nomenclature of United States trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 495-513.
  • Lovell, J. F. 1964. An ecological study of Rhus glabra. Ph.D. Dissertation Kansas St. Univ., Manhattan, KS,
  • Lovett Doust, J.; Lovett Doust, L. 1988. Modules of production and reproduction in a dioecious clonal shrub, Rhus typhina. Ecology 69: 741-50.
  • Luken, J. O. 1990. Gradual and episodic changes in the structure of Rhus typhina clones. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 221-5.
  • Luken, J. O. 1987. Interactions between seed production and vegetative growth in staghorn sumac, Rhus typhina L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114: 247-51.
  • Magen, K. 1912. Beitroge zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Samenschalen einiger Familien aus der Englershen Reihe der Sapindales. Ph.D. Dissertation Universitat Zurich,
  • Marks, P. L. 1979. Apparent fire-stimulated germination of Rhus typhina seeds. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 106: 41-2.
  • Mehrhoff, L. J. 1986. The Anacardiaceae of Connecticut. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 14(3): 3-7.
  • Miller, A. J. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of Rhus and its close relatives (Anacardiaceae). MS Thesis Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins,
  • Miller, A. J.; Young, D. A.; Wen, J. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) based on ITS sequence data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 162: 1401-1407.
  • Nash, G. V. 1916. Rhus hirta dissecta. Addisonia 1: 73-4.
  • Nesler, R. B.; Bailey, W. W. 1944. Sumac as a food for bob-white quail. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 31: 689-96.
  • Nestler, R. B.; Bailey, W. W. 1944. Sumac fruit as a food for bob-white quail. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 31: 689-96.
  • Peterson, C. J.; Facelli, J. M. 1992. Contrasting germination and seedling growth of Betula alleghaniensis and Rhus typhina subjected to various amounts and types of plant litter. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 1209-16.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1907. Some new or little known forms of New England trees. Rhodora 9: 109-17.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1991. Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth, a newly revived correct name for Rhus typhina L. Taxon 40: 489-92.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. XVII. Bot. Gaz. 22: 154-65.
  • Sando, C. E.; Bartlett, H. H. 1918. The flavones of Rhus. Amer. J. Bot. 5: 112-9.
  • Sievers, A. F.; Clarke, I. D. 1944. Preliminary studies of the cultivation of American sumac as a source of tannin. Amer. Leather Chem. Assoc. J. 39: 293-319.
  • Smith, H. K. 1970. The biology, wildlife use and management of sumac in the lower peninsula of Michigan. Ph.D. Dissertation Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI,
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1977. The chemical inhibition of competitors by smooth sumac (Rhus glabra). Michigan Bot. 16: 15-8.
  • Stoll, R. J. 1980. Foods of ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus in Ohio USA. Ohio Fish Wildlife Rep. 1980: 1-18.
  • Sudworth, G. B. 1892. On the names of two species of Rhus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 79-81.
  • Sullivan, J. 1994. Rhus typhina. ()
  • Sweet, H. R.; Barkley, F. A. 1936. A most useful plant family, the Anacardiaceae. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 24: 216-29.
  • Terrazas-Salgado, T. S. 1996. Wood anatomy of the Anacardiaceae: ecological and phylogenetic interpretation. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
  • Tirmenstein, D. 1987. Rhus aromatica. ()
  • Tirmenstein, D. A. 1987. Rhus glabra. ()
  • Uttal, L. J. 1984. An environmental race of Rhus aromatica Ait. in western Virginia. Jeffersonia 15: 75-6.
  • Weathers, K. C.; Siccama, T. G. 1986. A comparison of nutrient concentration in two poisonous and three nonpoisonous species of sumac (Rhus spp.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 116: 209-12.
  • Yi, T. 2007. Phylogeny of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) based on sequences of nuclear Nia-13 intron and chloroplast trnC-trnD. Syst. Bot. 32: 379-391.
  • Young, D. A. 1975. Systematics of Rhus subgenus Lobadium section Styphonia. Ph.D. Dissertation Claremont Univ., Claremont, CA,
  • Young, D. A. 1979. Heartwood flavonoids and the infrageneric relationships of Rhus (Anacardiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 66: 502-510.
  • Zhang, J.; Maun, M. A. 1994. Potential for seed bank formation in seven Great Lakes sand dune species. Amer. J. Bot. 81(4): 387-94.