New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Toxicodendron

Toxicodendron radicus Toxicodendron radicans Toxicodendron vernix

By Susan Pell

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

Back to Anacardiaceae

Nomenclature

Toxicodendron Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, ["T"]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze designated by Greene (1905), or Toxicodendron pubescens Mill. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Vernix Adans., Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 342. 1763. TYPE: Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze.

Philostemon Raf., Fl. Ludov. 107. 1817. TYPE: Philostemon radicans (L.) Raf. (=Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze).

List of Toxicodendron Species

References to Toxicodendron

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  • Anonymous 1875. Climbing plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 6: 47.
  • Baer, H. 1979. The poisonous Anacardiaceae. In: Toxic plants. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. , 161-70 pages.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1957. Generic key to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). Lloydia 20: 255-65.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1962. The genera of Anacardiaceae in the Southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 359-75.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1963. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 60-80.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N. 1989. Photosynthesis in an open field for exotic versus native vines of the southeastern United States. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 443-6. (French summary)
  • Clausen, Robert T. 1941. Northeastern limits of the known range of Rhus toxicodendron. Torreya 41: 58-9.
  • Crooks, D. M.; Klingman, D. L. 1971. Poison-ivy, poison-oak, and poison sumac: identification, precautions, eradication. U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 1972: 1-30.
  • Engler, A. 1881. Uber die morphologischen Verholtnisse und die geographische Verbreitung der Gattung Rhus, wie der mit ihr verwandten, lebenden und ausgestrobenen Anacardiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 365-426. (In German)
  • Frankel, E. 1991. Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and their relatives. The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA. , 98 pages. (For review see Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(1):76. 1993.)
  • Gillis, W. T. 1975. Poison ivy and its kin. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 35: 93-123.
  • Gillis, W. T. 1962. Poison-ivy in northern Michigan. Michigan Bot. 1: 17-22.
  • Gillis, W. T. 1961. Poison-ivy and the poison-oaks. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 30: 98-107.
  • Gillis, W. T. 1960. Taxonomic problems in poison ivy. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 45: 27-34.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1996. Bombus sp. visiting flowers of Toxicodendron radicans.
  • Graber, J. W.; Bowers, P. M. 1981. Dwarf sumac as winter bird food. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 105: 410-2.
  • Greene, E. 1905. Segregates of the genus Rhus. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 114-44.
  • Gross, M.; Baer, H.; Fales, H. M. 1975. Urushiols of poisonous Anacardiaceae. Phytochemistry 14: 2263-2266.
  • Heimsch, C. Jr. 1940. Wood anatomy and pollen morphology of Rhus and allied genera. J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 279-91.
  • Hill, N. M. 1989. Toxicodendron vernix added to the flora of Nova Scotia. Rhodora 91: 242-3.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69: 320-329.
  • Ibe, R. A.; Leis, R. A. 1979. Pollen morphology of the Anacardiaceae of northeastern North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 106: 140-4.
  • Kartesz, J. T.; Gandhi, K. N. 1991. Nomenclatural notes on North American flora. Phytologia 71: 87-100.
  • Kligman, A. M. 1958. Poison Ivy (Rhus) dermatitis. AMA Arch. Derm. Syph. 77: 149-80.
  • Kujawski, J. 2001. Propagation protocol for poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix). Native Plants J. 2: 112-113.
  • Ladwig, L. M.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Liana host preference and implications for deciduous forest regeneration. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 103-112.
  • Lavoie, C.; Jean, M.; Bouchard, A. 1991. Habitat su Sumac a vernis, Rhus vernix, a sa limite nord de distribution (Haut-Saint-Laurent, Quebec). Canad. Field-Naturalist 105: 71-7. (In French, English summary. Also Acer & Alnus)
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Lockwood, S. 1876. Rhus toxicodenron. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 6: 79.
  • Magen, K. 1912. Beitroge zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Samenschalen einiger Familien aus der Englershen Reihe der Sapindales. Ph.D. Dissertation Universitat Zurich,
  • McMurray, N. E. 1988. Toxicodendron rydbergii. ()
  • McNair, J. B. 1925. The taxonomy of poison ivy, with a note on the origin of the generic name. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 4: 55-70.
  • McNair, J. B. 1925. The geographical distribution of poison sumac (Rhus vernix L.) in North America. Amer. J. Bot. 12: 393-7.
  • McNair, J. B. 1925. Taxonomy and range of poison ivy. Science 61: 589.
  • McNair, J. B. 1925. The geographical distribution in North America of poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron) and allies. Amer. J. Bot. 12: 338-50.
  • McNair, J. B. 1921. The transmission of Rhus poison from plant to person. Amer. J. Bot. 8: 238-50.
  • Mehrhoff, L. J. 1986. The Anacardiaceae of Connecticut. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 14(3): 3-7.
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  • Mitich, L. W. 1995. Poison-ivy, poison-oak, poison sumac- the virulent weeds. Weed Technol. 9(3): 653-6.
  • Moore, A. H. 1909. Hairy-fruited variations of Rhus toxicodendron. Rhodora 11: 162-3.
  • Muenscher, W. C. 1930. Poison ivy and poison sumac. Cornell Extension Bulletin 191, Ithaca. , 11 pages.
  • Muenscher, W. C.; Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poison ivy and poison sumac. Cornell Ext. Bull. 191. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. , 11 pages.
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  • Mulligan, G. A.; Junkins, B. E. 1979. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 23. Rhus radicans L. In: The Biology of Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. , 257-65 pages. (Publication 1693)
  • Myster, R. W.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1990. Initial conditions, history and successional pathways in ten contrasting old fields. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 124: 231-8.
  • Nestler, R. B.; Bailey, W. W. 1944. Sumac fruit as a food for bob-white quail. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 31: 689-96.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Pavek, D. S. 1992. Toxicodendron radicans. ()
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  • Raymond, M. 1971. Le Rhus vernix dans le Quebec. Naturaliste Canad. 98: 733-4. (In French)
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  • Stoll, R. J. et.al. 1980. Foods of ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus in Ohio USA. Ohio Fish Wildlife Rep. 1980: 1-18.
  • Suthers, H. B. et.al. 2000. Use of successional habitat and fruit resources by songbirds during autumn migration in central New Jersey. Wilson Bull. 112: 249-260.
  • Sweet, H. R.; Barkley, F. A. 1936. A most useful plant family, the Anacardiaceae. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 24: 216-29.
  • Talley, S. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Setzer, W. N. 1996. Host preferences of Rhus radicans (Anacardiaceae) in a southern deciduous hardwood forest. Ecology 77: 1271-6.
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  • Vassilyev, A. E. 2000. Quantitative ultrastructural data of secretory duct epithelial cells in Rhus toxicodendron. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: 615-630.
  • Weathers, K. C.; Siccama, T. G. 1986. A comparison of nutrient concentration in two poisonous and three nonpoisonous species of sumac (Rhus spp.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 116: 209-12.
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  • Ziska, L. H. et.al. 2007. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and potential impacts on the growth and toxicity of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans). Weed Science 55: 288-292.