New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Alnus

Alnus - Alder

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/29/2013

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Nomenclature

Alnus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4., v.1 [“AL”]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Alnus vulgaris Hill (=Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

List of Alnus Species

References to Alnus

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  • Abbe, E. C. 1930. The anatomy and morphology of the staminate inflorescence and flowers of the Betulaceae. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY33 plates + 30 p.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. II. Extremes in the range of variation of floral and inflorescence morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Anderson, E.; Abbe, E. C. 1934. A quantitative comparison of specific and generic differences in the Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 43-9.
  • Anonymous 1979. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in actinomycete-nodulated plants. Bot. Gaz. 140(Supplement): 1-126.
  • Ashburner, K. 1986. Alnus: a survey. The Plantsman 8(3): 170-88.
  • Blom, J.; Roelofson, W.; Akkermans, A. D. L. 1981. Assimilation of nitrogen in root nodules of alder, Alnus glutinosa. New Phyt. 89: 321-6.
  • Bond, G. 1956. Evidence for fixation of nitrogen by root nodules of alder (Alnus) under field conditions. New Phyt. 55: 147-53.
  • Bond, G. 1967. Nitrogen fixation in some non-legume root nodules. Phyton 24: 57-66.
  • Bond, G.; Fletche, W. W.; Ferguson, T. P. 1954. The development and function of the root nodules of Alnus, Myrica and Hippophae. Pl. & Soil 5: 309-23.
  • Bormann, B. T.; Bormann, F. H.; et al. et.al. 1993. Rapid N2 fixation in pines, alder, and locust: evidence from the sandbox ecosystem study. Ecology 74: 583-98.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Genetic diversity within and among 11 juvenile populations of green alder (Alnus crispa) in Canada. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 70: 311-8.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1988. Allozyme variation within and among mature populations of speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) and relationships with green alder (Alnus crispa). Amer. J. Bot. 75(11): 1678-86.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Genetic differentiation among 22 native populations of green alder (Alnus crispa) in central Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 219-27.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Allozyme variability in natural populations of green alder (Alnus crispa) in Quebec. Genome 29: 345-52.
  • Briggs, D. G.; DeBell, D. S.; Atkinson, W. A. (eds.) (1978): 1978. Utilization and management of alder. Portland.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1904. An undescribed species of Alnus (A. noveboracensis). Torreya 4: 124.
  • Brown, D. M. 1941. The vegetation on Roan Mountain, a phytosociological and successional study. Ecol. Monogr. 11: 61-97.
  • Bunce, J. A.; Miller, L. N. 1976. Differential effects of water stress on respiration in the light in woody plants from wet and dry habitats. Canad. J. Bot. 54(21): 2457-64.
  • Bunce, J. A.; Miller, L. N.; Chabot, B. F. 1977. Competative exploitation of soil water by five eastern North American tree species. Bot. Gaz. 138(2): 168-73.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1981. A comparative study of leaf thickness among southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1393-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Variation in shade leaf thickness among urban trees growing in metropolitan Lexington, Kentucky. Castanea 44: 94-8.
  • Chamberlain, C. 1898. Winter characters of certain sporangia. Bot. Gaz. 25: 124-8.
  • Chen, Z. D.; Manchester, S. R.; Sun, H. Y. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1168-1181.
  • Chen, Z.; Li, J. 2004. Phylogenetics and biogeography of Alnus (Betulaceae) inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 325-335.
  • Clarkson, R. B. 1960. Notes on the distribution of Alnus crispa in eastern North America. Castanea 25: 83-6.
  • Dalton, D. A.; Naylor, A. W. 1975. Studies on nitrogen fixation by Alnus crispa. Amer. J. Bot. 62(1): 76-80.
  • Daly, G. T. 1966. Nitrogen fixation by nodulated Alnus rugosa. Canad. J. Bot. 44: 1607-21.
  • Duncan, W. H. 1950. Preliminary reports on the flora of Georgia. 2. Distribution of 87 trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 43: 742-61.
  • Echternach, J. L.; Rose, R. K. 1987. Use of woody vegetation by beavers in southeastern Virginia USA. Virginia J. Sci. 38: 226-232.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G.; Gulick, M. 1981. Structure and dynamics of hardwood swamps in the New Jersey Pine Barrens: contrasting patterns in trees and shrubs. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 471-81.
  • Ferguson, T. P.; Bond, G. 1953. Observations on the formation and function of the root nodules on Alnus glutinosa. Ann. Bot. 17: 175-88.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1945. Some North American Corylaceae (Betulaceae). II. Eastern North American representatives of Alnus incana. Rhodora 47(563): 333-61.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1904. The green alders of New England. Rhodora 6: 162-3.
  • Fremstad, E. 1983. Role of black alder (Alnus glutinosa) in vegetation dynamics in west Norway. Nordic J. Bot. 3: 393-410.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1976. Nomenclatural changes in (Alnus) (Betulaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 380, 381.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1990. The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 1-67.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1981. The Alnus incana complex in North America. Ohio J. Science 81 (Apr. Prog. Abstr.): 33. (Ohio Acad. Sci., 90th Annual Meeting April 24-26, 1981, College of Wooster.)
  • Furlow, J. J. 1982. The alders of North America. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1981: 115-9.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1979. The systematics of the American species of Alnus (Betulaceae). Rhodora 81: 1-121, 151-248.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1983. Evolutionary divergence and classification of the Alnus viridis complex (Betulaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 70(Suppl.): 114.
  • Genys, J. B. 1988. Intraspecific variation among 28 different sources of black alder, Alnus glutinosa (Betulaceae). Castanea 53: 71-9.
  • Gibson, J. P. et.al. 2008. Comparison of population genetic diversity between a rare, narrowly distributed species and a common, widespread species of Alnus (Betulaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 588-596.
  • Green, W. E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. J. Forest. 45: 118-20.
  • Hacke, U.; Sauter, J. J. 1996. Drought-induced xylem dysfunction in petioles, branches, and roots of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Pl. Physiol. (Rockville) 111: 413-417.
  • Hall, J. W. 1952. The comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Betulaceae. Bot. Gaz. 113(3): 235-70.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Bell, J. M. 1986. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants: IX. Betulaceae of eastern United States. Brittonia 38(2): 133-44.
  • Hawker, L. E.; Fraymouth, J. 1951. A re-investigation of the root-nodules of species of Elaeagnus, Hippophaë, Alnus, and Myrica, with special reference to the morphology and life histories of the causative organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol. 5: 369-86.
  • Herron, P.M. et.al. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Hollick, C. A. 1922. Alnus rugosa. Addisonia 7: 25-6.
  • Huenneke, L. F. 1985. Spatial distribution of genetic individuals in thickets of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, a clonal shrub. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 152-8.
  • Huenneke, L. F. 1987. Demography of a clonal shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Betulaceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 117: 43-55.
  • Huenneke, L. F.; Marks, P. L. 1987. Stem dynamics of the shrub Alnus incana ssp. rugosa: transition matrix models. Ecology 68: 1234-42.
  • Hurd, T. M.; Schwintzer, C. R. 1996. Formation of cluster roots in Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and other Alnus species. Canad. J. Bot. 74(11): 1684-6.
  • Hylander, N. 1957. On cut-leaf and small leaved forms of Alnus glutinosa and Alnus incana. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 51: 437-53.
  • Jobidon, R.; Thibault, J. R. 1981. Allelopathic effects of balsam poplar on green alder germination. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 413-8.
  • Khramova, E. L. 1996. Palynomorphology of the genus Alnus (Betulaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 81: 42-53. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Kikuzawa, K. 1980. Why do alder leaves fall in summer? Jap. J. Ecol. 30: 359-68.
  • Koike, T. 1995. Effects of CO2 in interaction with temperature and soil fertility on the foliar phenology of alder, birch, and maple seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 73(2): 149-57.
  • Lavoie, C.; Jean, M.; Bouchard, A. 1991. Habitat su Sumac a vernis, Rhus vernix, a sa limite nord de distribution (Haut-Saint-Laurent, Quebec). Canad. Field-Naturalist 105: 71-7. (In French, English summary. Also Acer & Alnus)
  • Love, D. 1968. Nomenclatural notes on Mt. Washington plants. Taxon 17: 89.
  • Lovell, J. H. 1897. Fertilization of Alnus incana and Salix discolor. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 264-5.
  • Lowry, G. L.; Brokaw, F. C.; Breeding, C. H. J. 1962. Alder for restoring coal spoils in Ohio. J. Forest. 60(3): 196-9. (A. glutinosa & A. incana)
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside trees and shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. Hortscience 8: 475-7.
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1975. Salt damage to roadside plants. J. Arboric. 1(1): 14-6.
  • Mackintosh, A.; Bond, G. 1970. Diversity in the nodular endophytes in Alnus and Myrica. Phyton (Buenos Aires) 27: 79-90.
  • Malloch, D.; Malloch, B. 1981. The mycorrhizal status of boreal plants: species from northeastern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2167-72.
  • Matlack, G. R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 74(8): 1150-60.
  • Matthews, R. F. 1992. Alnus viridis ssp. crispus. ()
  • McDermott, R. E. 1953. Light as a factor in the germination of some bottomland hardwood species. J. Forest. 51: 203-4.
  • McDermott, R. E. 1954. Effects of saturated soil on seedling growth of some bottomland hardwood species. Ecology 35: 36-41.
  • McIninch, S. M.; Garbisch, E. W.; Biggs, D. 1994. The benefits of wet-acclimating woody wetland plant species. Wetland Journal 6: 19-23.
  • McInteer, B. B. 1947. Soil preference of some plants as seen in Kentucky. Castanea 12: 1-8.
  • McVean, D. N. 1953. Regional variation of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. in Britain. Watsonia 3: 26-32.
  • McVean, D. N. 1955. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. II. Seed distribution and germination. J. Ecol. 43: 61-71.
  • McVean, D. N. 1956. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. III. Seedling establishment. J. Ecol. 44: 195-218.
  • McVean, D. N. 1956. Ecology of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. IV. Root system. J. Ecol. 44: 219-25.
  • Meurer-Grimes, B. 1995. New evidence for the systematic significance of acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of higher Hamamelidae. Brittonia 47(2): 130-42.
  • Mian, S.; Bond, G. 1978. The onset of nitrogen fixation in young alder plants and its relation to differentiation in the nodular endophyte. New Phyt. 80: 187-92.
  • Mitchell, C. C.; Niering, William A. 1993. Vegetation change in a topogenic bog following beaver flooding. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(2): 136-47.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. Betulaceae through Cactaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 476. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 93 pages.
  • Molina, R. 1981. Ectomycorrhizal specificity in the genus Alnus. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 325-34.
  • Murphy, J. F.; Miller, O. K. 1994. Mycorrhizal synthesis with Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd. Castanea 59: 156-66.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
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  • Ricklefs, R. E.; Matthew, K. K. 1982. Chemical characteristics of the foliage of some deciduous trees in southeastern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2037-45.
  • Rose, S. L. 1980. Mycorrhizal associations of some actinomycete nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 1449-54.
  • Schalin, I. 1968. Germination analysis of grey alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds. In: Biology of Alder. Northwest Sci. Assoc. 40th Annual meeting Symp. Proc. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Portland, OR. , 107-13 pages.
  • Schrader, J. A. et.al. 2006. Differences in shade tolerance help explain varying success of two sympatric Alnus species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 979-989.
  • Schwintzer, C. R.; Tjepkema, J. D. 1997. Field nodules of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and Myrica gale exhibit pronounced acetylene-induced declines in nitrogenase activity. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1415-23.
  • Sequerra, J. et al. et.al. 1994. Root hair infection process and myconodule formation on Alnus incana by Penicillium nodositatum. Canad. J. Bot. 72(7): 955-62.
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