New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Betulaceae

Betula populifolia

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Nomenclature

List of Betulaceae Genera

References to Betulaceae

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  • Abbe, E. C. 1930. The anatomy and morphology of the staminate inflorescence and flowers of the Betulaceae. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY33 plates + 30 p.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. II. Extremes in the range of variation of floral and inflorescence morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1974. Flowers and inflorescences of the "Amentiferae". Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 40: 159-261.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Alam, M. T.; Grant, W. F. 1971. Pollen longevity in birch (<em>Betula</em>). Canad. J. Bot. 49: 797-9.
  • Alam, M. T.; Grant, W. F. 1972. Interspecific hybridization in birch (<em>Betula</em>). Naturaliste Canad. 99: 33-40.
  • Allard, H. A. 1945. A second record for the paper birch, <em>Betula papyrifera</em>, in West Virginia. Castanea 10(2): 55-7.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Amthor, J. S.; Gill, D. S.; Bormann, F. H. 1990. Autumnal laef conductance and apparent photosythesis by saplings and sprouts in a recently disturbed northern hardwood forest. Oecologia 84: 93-8.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Anderson, E. 1964. The European hornbeam, <em>Carpinus betulus</em>. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 52: 13-4.
  • Anderson, E.; Abbe, E. C. 1934. A quantitative comparison of specific and generic differences in the Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 43-9.
  • Andrews, S. 1993. Selected bibliography of Betulaceae. In: <em>Betula</em>: proceedings of the IDS <em>Betula</em> Symposium, 2-4 October, 1992 (Morpeth):. International Dendrology Society. , 106-9 pages.
  • Angelo, R.; Boufford, D. E. 2010. Atlas of the flora of New England: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Rhodora 112: 244-326.
  • Anonymous 1979. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in actinomycete-nodulated plants. Bot. Gaz. 140(Supplement): 1-126.
  • Ashburner, K. 1986. <em>Alnus</em>: a survey. The Plantsman 8(3): 170-88.
  • Ashburner, K. 1980. <em>Betula</em>: a survey. The Plantsman 2(1): 31-53.
  • Ashburner, K. 1979. <em>Betula</em> species and bark character. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1979: 47-57. (Abstr. in Forestry Abstr., 42(8):3524. 1981.)
  • Atkinson, A. D. 1998. A Bibliography of the genus <em>Betula</em>. ()
  • Atkinson, M. D.; Codling, A. N. 1986. A reliable method for distinguishing between <em>Betula pendula</em> and <em>B. pubescens</em>. Watsonia 16(1): 75-6.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Bailey, I. W. 1910. Notes on the wood structure of the Betulaceae and Fagaceae. Forest. Quart. 8: 178-185.
  • Ball, J.; Simmons, G. 1980. The relationship between bronze birch borer and birch dieback. J. Arboric. 6(12): 309-14.
  • Balter, H.; Loeb, R. E. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-9.
  • Barabe, D.; Bergeron, Y.; Vincent, G. 1987. La repartition des caracteres dans la classification des Hamamelididae (Angiospermae). (English summary.). Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1756-67.
  • Barden, L. S. 1983. Size, age, and growth rate of trees in canopy gaps of a cove hardwood forest in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 48: 19-23.
  • Barnes, B. V. 1978. Pollen abortion in <em>Betula</em> and <em>Populus</em> (section <em>Leuce</em>). Michigan Bot. 17(4): 167-72.
  • Barnes, B. V.; Dancic, B. P.; Sharik, T. L. 1974. Natural hybridization of yellow birch and paper birch. Forest Sci. 20: 215-21.
  • Barrett, J. W.; Farnsworth, C. E.; Rutherford, W. Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60(9): 630-9.
  • Bartgis, R. L.; Hutton, E. E. 1988. Additions to the known flora of West Virginia. Castanea 53: 295-8.
  • Bazzaz, F. A.; Miao, S. L. 1993. Successional status, seed size, and responses of tree seedlings to CO2, light, and nutrients. Ecology 74: 104-12.
  • Beaudet, M.; Messier, C. 1998. Growth and morphological responses of yellow birch, sugar maple and beech seedlings growing under a natural light gradient. Canad. J. Forest Res. 28: 1007-1015.
  • Bell, J. M.; Personius, D. G.; Curtis, J. D. 1982. The occurrence and variation of secretory structures in the Betulaceae. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 89: 9.
  • Benson, M. E.; Sanday, E.; Berridge, E. 1906. Contribution to the embryology of the Amentiferae. Part II. <em>Carpinus betulus</em>. Trans. Linn. Soc. London Bot. 7: 37-44.
  • Berbee, J. G. 1957. Virus symptoms associated with birch dieback.
  • Berger, W. 1953. Studien zur Systematik und Geschichte der Gattung <em>Carpinus</em>. Bot. Not. 106: 1-47. (In German)
  • Bernston, G. M.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1996. The allometry of root production and loss in seedlings of <em>Acer rubrum</em> (Aceraceae) and <em>Betula papyrifera</em> (Betulaceae): implications for root dynamics in elevated CO2. Amer. J. Bot. 83(5): 608-16.
  • Bernston, G. M.; Farnsworth, E. J.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1995. Aoolcation, within and between organs, and the dynamics of root length changes in two birch species. Oecologia 101: 439-47.
  • Bevington, J. 1986. Geographic differences in the seed germination of paper birch, <em>Betula papyrifera</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 564-73.
  • Bevington, J. M.; Hoyle, M. C. 1981. Phytochrome action during prechilling induced germination of <em>Betula papyrifera</em> Marsh. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 67: 705-10.
  • Bjorkbom, J. C. 1971. Production and germination of paper birch seed and its dispersal into a forest opening.
  • Bjorkbom, J. C.; Marquis, D. A.; Cunningham, F. E. 1965. The variability of paper birch seed production, dispersal, and germination. (Upper Darby, PA)
  • Black, M. 1956. Interrelationship of germination inhibitors and oxygen in the dormancy of seed of <em>Betula</em>. Nature 178: 924-5.
  • Black, M.; Hoad, G. V. 1968. The role of germination inhibitors and oxygen in the dormancy of the light-sensitive seed of <em>Betula</em> spp. J. Exp. Bot. 10(28): 134-5.
  • Black, M.; Wareing, P. F. 1955. Growth studies in woody species. VII. Photoperiodic control of germination in <em>Betula pubescens</em>. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 8: 300-16.
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  • Bobrov, E. G. 1936. Histoire et systematics du genre <em>Corylus</em>. Sovetsk. Bot. 1: 11-51.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Brinkman, J. A. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 309-17.
  • Boileau, F.; Crete, M.; Huot, J. 1994. Food habits of the black bear, <em>Ursus americanus</em>, and habitat use in Gaspesie Park, eastern Quebec. Canad. Field-Naturalist 108: 162-9. (French summary)
  • Bond, G. 1967. Nitrogen fixation in some non-legume root nodules. Phyton 24: 57-66.
  • Bond, G. 1956. Evidence for fixation of nitrogen by root nodules of alder (<em>Alnus</em>) under field conditions. New Phyt. 55: 147-53.
  • Bond, G.; Fletche, W. W.; Ferguson, T. P. 1954. The development and function of the root nodules of <em>Alnus</em>, <em>Myrica</em> and <em>Hippophae</em>. Pl. & Soil 5: 309-23.
  • Bormann, B. T.; Bormann, F. H.; et al. et.al. 1993. Rapid N2 fixation in pines, alder, and locust: evidence from the sandbox ecosystem study. Ecology 74: 583-98.
  • Boubier, A. M. 1896. Recherches sur l' anatomie systematique des Betulacees-Corylacees. Malpighia 10: 349-436. (In French)
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Genetic differentiation among 22 native populations of green alder (<em>Alnus crispa</em>) in central Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 219-27.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1988. Allozyme variation within and among mature populations of speckled alder (<em>Alnus rugosa</em>) and relationships with green alder (<em>Alnus crispa</em>). Amer. J. Bot. 75(11): 1678-86.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Genetic diversity within and among 11 juvenile populations of green alder (<em>Alnus crispa</em>) in Canada. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 70: 311-8.
  • Bousquet, J.; Cheliak, W. M.; Lalonde, M. 1987. Allozyme variability in natural populations of green alder (<em>Alnus crispa</em>) in Quebec. Genome 29: 345-52.
  • Bousquet, J.; Strauss, S. H.; Li, P. 1992. Complete congruence between morphological and rbcL-based molecular phylogenies in birches and related species (Betulaceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 9: 1076-88.
  • Brayshaw, T. C. 1966. What are the blue birches? Canad. Field-Naturalist 80: 187-94.
  • Brayshaw, T. C. 1966. The names of yellow birch and two of it's varieties. Canad. Field-Naturalist 80: 160-1.
  • Briggs, D. G.; DeBell, D. S.; Atkinson, W. A. (eds.) (1978): 1978. Utilization and management of alder. Portland.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1965. Observations on Canadian birch (<em>Betula</em>) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. I. <em>B</em>. <em>papyrifera</em> in eastern Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 79: 189-97.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1967. Observations on Canadian birch (<em>Betula</em>) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. V. <em>B</em>. <em>papyrifera</em> and <em>B</em>. <em>cordifolia</em> from eastern Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 81: 251-62.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1971. Observations on the <em>Betula caerulea</em> complex. Naturaliste Canad. 98: 49-58.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1965. Observations on Canadian birch (<em>Betula</em>) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. II. <em>B</em>. <em>papyrifera</em> var. <em>cordifolia</em>. Canad. Field-Naturalist 79: 253-7.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1967. Observations on Canadian birch (<em>Betula</em>) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. IV. <em>B</em>. <em>caerula-grandis</em> and hybrids. Canad. Field-Naturalist 81: 116-27.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1904. An undescribed species of <em>Alnus</em> (<em>A. noveboracensis</em>). Torreya 4: 124.
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  • Caesar, J. C.; MacDonald, A. D. 1984. Shoot development in <em>Betula papyrifera</em> 5. Effect of male inflorescence formation and flowering on long shoot development. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 1708-13.
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