New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Betula

Betula populifolia Betula papyrifera Betula alleghanensis Betula nigra Betula lenta bark Betula lenta catkins

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Betulaceae

Nomenclature

Betula L., Sp. Pl. 982. 1753. Gen. Pl. 422. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Betula alba L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Chamaebetula Opiz, Lotos 5: 258. 1855. TYPE: Not designated.

List of Betula Species

References to Betula

  • Abbe, E. C. 1933. The inter-relationship of the genera of the Betulaceae, based on anatomical studies of the inflorescence, the flowers, and the secondary xylem. MS Thesis Harvard Univ.,
  • Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. II. Extremes in the range of variation of floral and inflorescence morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1930. The anatomy and morphology of the staminate inflorescence and flowers of the Betulaceae. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY33 plates + 30 p.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Alam, M. T.; Grant, W. F. 1971. Pollen longevity in birch (Betula). Canad. J. Bot. 49: 797-9.
  • Alam, M. T.; Grant, W. F. 1972. Interspecific hybridization in birch (Betula). Naturaliste Canad. 99: 33-40.
  • Allard, H. A. 1945. A second record for the paper birch, Betula papyrifera, in West Virginia. Castanea 10(2): 55-7.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Amthor, J. S.; Gill, D. S.; Bormann, F. H. 1990. Autumnal laef conductance and apparent photosythesis by saplings and sprouts in a recently disturbed northern hardwood forest. Oecologia 84: 93-8.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Anderson, E.; Abbe, E. C. 1934. A quantitative comparison of specific and generic differences in the Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 43-9.
  • Ashburner, K. 1980. Betula: a survey. The Plantsman 2(1): 31-53.
  • Ashburner, K. 1979. Betula species and bark character. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1979: 47-57. (Abstr. in Forestry Abstr., 42(8):3524. 1981.)
  • Atkinson, A. D. 1998. A Bibliography of the genus Betula. ()
  • Atkinson, M. D.; Codling, A. N. 1986. A reliable method for distinguishing between Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Watsonia 16(1): 75-6.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Bailey, I. W. 1910. Notes on the wood structure of the Betulaceae and Fagaceae. Forest. Quart. 8: 178-185.
  • Ball, J.; Simmons, G. 1980. The relationship between bronze birch borer and birch dieback. J. Arboric. 6(12): 309-14.
  • Balter, H.; Loeb, R. E. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-9.
  • Barden, L. S. 1983. Size, age, and growth rate of trees in canopy gaps of a cove hardwood forest in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 48: 19-23.
  • Barnes, B. V. 1978. Pollen abortion in Betula and Populus (section Leuce). Michigan Bot. 17(4): 167-72.
  • Barnes, B. V.; Dancic, B. P.; Sharik, T. L. 1974. Natural hybridization of yellow birch and paper birch. Forest Sci. 20: 215-21.
  • Barrett, J. W.; Farnsworth, C. E.; Rutherford, W. Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60(9): 630-9.
  • Bartgis, R. L.; Hutton, E. E. 1988. Additions to the known flora of West Virginia. Castanea 53: 295-8.
  • Bazzaz, F. A.; Miao, S. L. 1993. Successional status, seed size, and responses of tree seedlings to CO2, light, and nutrients. Ecology 74: 104-12.
  • Beaudet, M.; Messier, C. 1998. Growth and morphological responses of yellow birch, sugar maple and beech seedlings growing under a natural light gradient. Canad. J. Forest Res. 28: 1007-1015.
  • Berbee, J. G. 1957. Virus symptoms associated with birch dieback.
  • Bernston, G. M.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1996. The allometry of root production and loss in seedlings of Acer rubrum (Aceraceae) and Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae): implications for root dynamics in elevated CO2. Amer. J. Bot. 83(5): 608-16.
  • Bernston, G. M.; Farnsworth, E. J.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1995. Aoolcation, within and between organs, and the dynamics of root length changes in two birch species. Oecologia 101: 439-47.
  • Bevington, J. 1986. Geographic differences in the seed germination of paper birch, Betula papyrifera. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 564-73.
  • Bevington, J. M.; Hoyle, M. C. 1981. Phytochrome action during prechilling induced germination of Betula papyrifera Marsh. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 67: 705-10.
  • Bjorkbom, J. C. 1971. Production and germination of paper birch seed and its dispersal into a forest opening.
  • Bjorkbom, J. C.; Marquis, D. A.; Cunningham, F. E. 1965. The variability of paper birch seed production, dispersal, and germination. (Upper Darby, PA)
  • Black, M. 1956. Interrelationship of germination inhibitors and oxygen in the dormancy of seed of Betula. Nature 178: 924-5.
  • Black, M.; Hoad, G. V. 1968. The role of germination inhibitors and oxygen in the dormancy of the light-sensitive seed of Betula spp. J. Exp. Bot. 10(28): 134-5.
  • Black, M.; Wareing, P. F. 1955. Growth studies in woody species. VII. Photoperiodic control of germination in Betula pubescens. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 8: 300-16.
  • Boileau, F.; Crete, M.; Huot, J. 1994. Food habits of the black bear, Ursus americanus, and habitat use in Gaspesie Park, eastern Quebec. Canad. Field-Naturalist 108: 162-9. (French summary)
  • Brayshaw, T. C. 1966. What are the blue birches? Canad. Field-Naturalist 80: 187-94.
  • Brayshaw, T. C. 1966. The names of yellow birch and two of it's varieties. Canad. Field-Naturalist 80: 160-1.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1965. Observations on Canadian birch (Betula) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. II. B. papyrifera var. cordifolia. Canad. Field-Naturalist 79: 253-7.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1967. Observations on Canadian birch (Betula) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. V. B. papyrifera and B. cordifolia from eastern Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 81: 251-62.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1967. Observations on Canadian birch (Betula) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. IV. B. caerula-grandis and hybrids. Canad. Field-Naturalist 81: 116-27.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1971. Observations on the Betula caerulea complex. Naturaliste Canad. 98: 49-58.
  • Brittain, W. H.; Grant, W. F. 1965. Observations on Canadian birch (Betula) collections at the Morgan Arboretum. I. B. papyrifera in eastern Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 79: 189-97.
  • Brown, I. R.; Kennedy, D.; Williams, D. A. 1982. The occurrence of natural hybrids between Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. Watsonia 14(2): 133-45.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Stearns, F. W. 1985. Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 167-75.
  • Brundrett, M.; Murase, G.; Kendrick, B. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 551-78. (French summary)
  • Caesar, J. C.; MacDonald, A. D. 1984. Shoot development in Betula papyrifera 5. Effect of male inflorescence formation and flowering on long shoot development. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 1708-13.
  • Calme, S.; Margolis, H. A.; Bigras, F. J.; Mailly, D. 1995. The relationship between water content and frost tolerance in shoots of hardwood seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1738-45. (French summary)
  • Campbell, W. A.; Davidson, R. W. 1941. Cankers and decay of yellow birch associated with Fomes ignarius var. laevigatus. J. Forest. 39: 559-60.
  • Carlsmith, A. 1984. The river birch. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 44: 28-31.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1981. A comparative study of leaf thickness among southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1393-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Variation in shade leaf thickness among urban trees growing in metropolitan Lexington, Kentucky. Castanea 44: 94-8.
  • Carter, K. K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1089-95. (French summary)
  • Cathey, H. M.; Campbell, L. E. 1975. Security lighting and its impact on the landscape. J. Arboric. 1: 181-187.
  • Catling, P. M.; Spicer, K. W. 1988. The seperation of Betula populifolia and Betula pendula and their status in Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18: 1017-26.
  • Chen, Z. D.; Manchester, S. R.; Sun, H. Y. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1168-1181.
  • Clark, J. 1961. Birch dieback. In: Recent Advances in Botany: from Lectures and Symposia Presented to the IX International Botanical Co. Toronto. , 1551-5 pages.
  • Clark, J.; Barter, G. W. 1958. Growth and climate in relation to dieback of yellow birch. Forest Sci. 4: 343-64.
  • Clark, J.; Gibbs, R. D. 1957. Studies in tree physiology. IV. Further investigations of seasonal changes in moisture content of certain Canadian forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 35: 219-53.
  • Clausen, J. J.; Koslowski, T. T. 1965. Heterophyllous shoots in Betula papyrifera. Nature 205: 1030-1.
  • Clausen, J. J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1965. Heterophyllous shoots in Betula papyrifera. Nature 205: 1030-1.
  • Clausen, K. E. 1960. A survey of variation in pollen size within individual plants and catkins of three taxa of Betula. Pollen & Spores 2: 299-304.
  • Clausen, K. E. 1975. Variation in early growth and survival of yellow birch progenies.
  • Clausen, K. E. 1973. Genetics of yellow birch.
  • Clausen, K. E. 1968. Variation in height growth and growth cessation of 55 yellow birch seed sources.
  • Clausen, K. E. 1963. Characteristics of a hybrid birch and its parent species. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 441-58.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Betula populifolia. ()
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1940. Paper birch. Amer. Forests 46: 220-1.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1941. Red birch. Amer. Forests 47: 284-5.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Black birch. Amer. Forests 48: 412-3.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Yellow birch. Amer. Forests 48: 178-9.
  • Collins, S. L. 1990. Habitat relationships and survivorship of tree seedlings in hemlock-hardwood forest. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 790-7. (French summary)
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. The period of growth in some northeastern trees. J. Forest. 39: 956-959.
  • Cooper, J. I.; Massalsk, P. R. 1984. Viruses and virus-like diseases affecting Betula spp. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 85: 183.
  • Cormier, C. R. 1988. Betula nigra at Mendum's Pond, Barrington, NH and Pawtuckaway Lake, Nottingham, NH. Rhodora 90(863): 345.
  • Correll, D. S. 1942. Betula populifolia in Virginia and its variety laciniata in Massachusetts. Rhodora 44(523): 236-7.
  • Cousins, S. M. 1933. The comparative anatomy of the stems of Betula pumila, Betula lenta, and the hybrid Betula jackii. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 351-5.
  • Cox, R. M.; Lemieux, G.; Lodin, M. 1996. The assessment and condition of Fundy white birches in relation to ambient exposure to acid marine fogs. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 682-8. (French summary)
  • Coyle, B. F.; Sharik, T. L.; Feret, P. P. 1982. Variation in leaf morphology among disjunct continuous populations of river birch, Betula nigra. Silvae Genet. 31: 122-5.
  • Coyle, B. F.; Sharik, T. L.; Feret, P. P. 1981. An evaluation of disjunctness in the distribution of river birch (Betula nigra). Virginia J. Sci. 32(3): 102.
  • Coyle, B. F.; Sharik, T. L.; Feret, P. P. 1983. The utility of range-wide maps for identifying disjunct populations of river birch (Betula nigra L.). Castanea 48: 285-8.
  • Crabtree, R. C.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1993. Black birch (Betula lenta L.) seedlings as foragers for nitrogen. New Phyt. 122: 617-25.
  • Cribben, L. D.; Ungar, I. A. 1974. River birch (Betula nigra L.) communities of southeastern Ohio. Ohio Biol. Surv. Notes 8: 1-37.
  • Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology 20: 71-3. (spp. table reprinted in Arborist's News 4(3):24. 1939.)
  • Curtis, R. O.; Rushmore, F. M. 1958. Some effects of stand density and deer browsing on reproduction in an Adirondack hardwood stand. J. Forest. 56: 116-21.
  • Cusick, A. W. 1984. Is Betula papyrifera Marshall indigenous to Ohio? Ohio J. Science 84: 125-8.
  • Dancik, B. P. 1974. Variability of yellow birch in the western Great Lakes region.
  • Dancik, B. P. 1967. A population study of the birches, Betula alleghaniensis, B. pumila and their hybrid. M.S. Thesis Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor,
  • Dancik, B. P.; Barnes, B. V. 1974. Leaf diversity in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). Canad. J. Bot. 52: 2407-14.
  • Dancik, B. P.; Barnes, B. V. 1971. Variability in bark morphology of yellow birch in an even-aged stand. Michigan Bot. 10: 34-8.
  • Dancik, B. P.; Barnes, B. V. 1975. Leaf variability in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) in relation to environment. Canad. J. Forest Res. 5: 149-59.
  • Dansereau, P.; Pageau, G. 1966. Geographic distribution and ecology of Betula alleghaniensis. Mem. Jard. Bot. Montreal 58: 1-56. (In French)
  • Davy, A. J.; Gill, J. A. 1984. Variation due to environment and heredity in birch transplanted between heath and bog. New Phyt. 97: 489-506.
  • DeHond, P. A.; Campbell, C. S. 1989. Multivariate analysis of hybridization between Betula cordifolia and B. populifolia (Betulaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 67: 2252-60. (French summary)
  • DeHond, P. A.; Campbell, C. S. 1987. Natural hybridization between Betula cordifolia and B. populifolia (Betulaceae) in Maine. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 731. (Abstract)
  • Denneler, B; Bergeron, Y.; Begin, Y. 1999. An attempt to explain the distribution of the tree species composing the riparian forests of Lake Duparquet, southern boreal region of Quebec, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 1744-1755.
  • Downs, R. J.; Bevington, J. M. 1981. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and dormancy of Betula papyrifera. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 795-800.
  • Dugle, J. R. 1969. Some nomenclatural problems in North American Betula. Canad. Field-Naturalist 83: 251-3.
  • Duncan, W. H. 1950. Preliminary reports on the flora of Georgia. 2. Distribution of 87 trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 43: 742-61.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G.; Gulick, M. 1981. Structure and dynamics of hardwood swamps in the New Jersey Pine Barrens: contrasting patterns in trees and shrubs. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 471-81.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1945. Some North American Corylaceae (Betulaceae). I. Notes on Betula in eastern North America. Rhodora 47(561): 303-29.
  • Flinn, M. A.; Wein, R. W. 1988. Regrowth of forest understory species following seasonal burning. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 150-155.
  • Fontaine, F. J. 1970. The genus Betula (contribution to a monograph). Misc. Pap. Landbouwhogeschool 6: 99-180. (In Dutch)
  • Forcier, L. K. 1973. Seedling pattern and population dynamics, and the reproductive strategies of sugar maple, beech and yellow birch. Ph.D. Dissertation Yale Univ., New Haven, CT,
  • Forcier, L. K. 1975. Reproductive strategies and the co-occurrence of climax tree species. Science 189: 808-9.
  • Fostad, O.; Pedersen, P. A. 1998. Progeny testing in street trees subjected to roadside soil pollution. J. Arboric. 24: 127-34.
  • Fritts, H. C.; Kirkland, B. J. 1960. The distribution of river birch in Cumberland County, Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 53: 68-70.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1990. The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 1-67.
  • Gabriel, W. J. 1975. Allelopathic effects of black walnut on white birches. J. Forest. 73: 234-7.
  • Gardiner, A. S.; Pearce, N. J. 1979. Leaf-shape as an indicator of introgression between Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 43(2): 91-103.
  • Garrison, R. 1949. Origin and development of axillary buds: Betula papyrifera Marsh. and Euptelea polyandra Sieb. & Zucc. Amer. J. Bot. 36: 379-89.
  • George, M. F.; Hong, S. G.; Burke, M. J. 1977. Cold hardiness and deep supercooling of hardwoods: its occurrence in provenance collections of red oak, yellow birch, black walnut, and black cherry. Ecology 58: 674-80.
  • Gilbert, A. M. 1960. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch.
  • Godman, R. M. 1959. Winter sunscald on yellow birch. J. Forest. 57: 368-9.
  • Godman, R. M. 1959. Are water table levels an important factor in the establishment and growth of yellow birch? Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 44: 183-90.
  • Godman, R. M.; Krefting, L. W. 1960. Factors important to yellow birch establishment in upper Michigan. Ecology 41: 18-28.
  • Godman, R. M.; Mattson, G. A. 1970. Periodic growth of hardwood influenced by cold weather. J. Forest. 68(2): 86-7.
  • Good, N. F. 1968. A study of natural replacement of chestnut in six stands in the highlands of New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95: 240-53. (Also Acer, Betula, & Fagus)
  • Good, N. F.; Good, R. E. 1972. Population dynamics of tree seedlings and saplings in a mature eastern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 172-8.
  • Gordon, A. G.; Gorham, E. 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron-sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 1063-78.
  • Gordon, J. C. 1969. Effect of shade on photosynthesis and dry weight distribution in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) seedlings. Ecology 50: 924-6.
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  • Govaerts, R. 1996. (1261) Proposal to reject the name Betula alba (Betulaceae). Taxon 45: 697-8.
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  • Green, W. E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. J. Forest. 45: 118-20.
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  • Grime, J. P.; Jeffrey, D. W. 1965. Seedling establishment in vertical gradients of sunlight. J. Ecol. 53(3): 621-42.
  • Gross, H. L. 1972. Crown deterioration and reduced growth associated with excessive seed production by birch. Canad. J. Bot. 50(12): 2431-7.
  • Gross, H. L.; Harnden, A. A. 1968. Dieback and abnormal growth of yellow birch induced by heavy fruiting.
  • Guerriero, A. G.; Grant, W. F.; Brittain, W. H. 1970. Interspecific hybridization between Betula cordifolia and B. populifolia at Valcartier, Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 2241-7.
  • Hakansson, A. 1957. Notes on endosperm formation in Betula. Bot. Not. 110: 201-4.
  • Hall, J. W. 1952. The comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Betulaceae. Bot. Gaz. 113(3): 235-70.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Bell, J. M. 1986. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants: IX. Betulaceae of eastern United States. Brittonia 38(2): 133-44.
  • Hatcher, R. J. 1966. Yellow birch regeneration on scarified seedbeds under small canopy openings. Forest. Chron. 42: 350-8.
  • Hawboldt, L. S. 1947. Aspects of yellow birch dieback in Nova Scotia. J. Forest. 45: 414-22.
  • Heit, C. E. 1968. Thirty-five years' testing of tree and shrub seed. J. Forest. 66(8): 632-3.
  • Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material - an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55: 772-83.
  • Hornbeck, J. W.; Smith, R. B.; Federer, C. A. 1988. Growth trends in 10 species of trees in New England, 1950-1980. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18: 1337-40.
  • Horsley, S. B.; Wilson, B. F. 1971. Development of the woody portion of the root system of Betula papyrifera. Amer. J. Bot. 58(2): 141-7.
  • Hough, A. F.; Forbes, R. D. 1943. The ecology and silvics of forests in the high plateaus of Pennsylvania. Ecol. Monogr. 13: 299-320.
  • Houle, G. 1998. Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment of Betula alleghaniensis: spatial inconsistency in time. Ecology 79: 807-818.
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  • Houle, G. 1992. The reproductive ecology of Abies balsamea, Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis in the TantarÚ Ecological Reserve, Quebec. J. Ecol. 80(4): 611-24.
  • Houle, G.; Payette, S. 1990. Seed dynamics of Betula alleghaniensis in a deciduous forest of northeastern North America. J. Ecol. 78: 677-90.
  • Hoyle, M. C. 1969. Variation in content of microelements in yellow birch foliage due to season and soil drainage. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33: 458-9.
  • Hoyle, M. C. 1965. Variation in foliage composition and diameter growth of yellow birch with season, soil, and tree size. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29: 475-80.
  • Hoyle, M. C. 1965. Growth of yellow birch in a podzol soil.
  • Hoyle, M. C. 1966. Diameter growth of yellow birch not closely related to density. J. Forest. 64(9): 628-9.
  • Huber, F. C. 1977. Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fernald in Tennessee. Castanea 42: 324-5.
  • Hughes, J. W.; Fahey, T. J. 1988. Seed dispersal and colonization in a disturbed northern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 115: 89-99.
  • Hughs, R. N. 1990. Effects of simulated acid fog on reproduction in Betula papyrifera and Betula cordifolia (Betulaceae). M.S. Thesis Faculty of Forestry, Univ. New Brunswick, Frederic,
  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 421-30.
  • Hupp, C. R. 1983. Seedling establishment on a landslide site. Castanea 48: 89-98.
  • Hutchinson, A. H. 1918. Limiting factors in relation to specific ranges of tolerance of forest trees. Bot. Gaz. 66: 465-93.
  • Hutnik, R. J.; Cunningham, F. E. 1961. Silvical characteristics of paper birch.
  • Hyvarinen, M. J. 1968. Paper birch. Its characteristics, properties, and uses. A review of recent literature.
  • Illick, J. S. 1922. The birches. Amer. Forests 28: 355-64.
  • Isenberg, I. H. 1956. Papermaking fibers. Econ. Bot. 10(2): 176-93.
  • Ivarson, K. C.; Katznelson, H. 1960. Studies on the rhizosphere microflora of yellow birch seedlings. Pl. & Soil 12: 30-40.
  • Ives, J. W. 1977. Pollen seperation of three North American birches. Arctic Alp. Res. 9(1): 73-80.
  • Jacobs, R. D. 1965. Seasonal height growth patterns of sugar maple, yellow birch, and red maple seedlings in Upper Michigan.
  • Jarvinen, P. et.al. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Betula species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear ADH and chloroplast MATK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1834-1845.
  • Johnson, L. P. V. 1974. Genetic characteristics of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and B. pubescens Ehrh. Ann. Forest. 6: 91-127.
  • Johnson, L. P. V. 1949. Studies on birch species hybrids. I. Betula verrucosa x B. japonica, B. verrucosa x B. papyrifera, and B. pubescens x B. papyrifera. Canad. J. Res., Sect. C, Bot. Sci. 35: 115-35.
  • Johnson, L. P. V. 1939. A descriptive list of natural and artificial interspecific hybrids in North American forest-tree genera. Canad. J. Res., Sect. C, Bot. Sci. 17: 411-44.
  • Johnsson, H. 1945. Interspecific hybridization within the genus Betula. Hereditas 31: 163-76.
  • Jones, E. A. et al. et.al. 1993. Climate stress as a precursor to forest decline: paper birch in northern Michigan, 1985-1990. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23(2): 229-33.
  • Jones, R. H.; Sharitz, R. R.; McLeod, K. W. 1989. Effects of flooding and root competition on growth of shaded bottomland hardwood seedlings. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 121: 165-75.
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