Genus: Carpinus

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

Back to Betulaceae


Carpinus L., Sp. Pl. 998. 1753. Gen. Pl. 432. 1754. Ostrya Hill, Brit. Herb. 513. 1757, nom. rej. LECTOTYPE: Carpinus betulus L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Carpinus

1. Buds 3 mm, long-hairy at first; fruiting bracts 5- to 7-nerved at base; common native understory tree...Carpinus caroliniana
1. Buds 5 mm, glabrous; fruiting bracts 3- to 5-nerved at base; rare nonnative escape...Carpinus betulus

List of Carpinus Species

References to Carpinus

  • Abbe, E. C. 1933. The inter-relationship of the genera of the Betulaceae, based on anatomical studies of the inflorescence, the flowers, and the secondary xylem. MS Thesis Harvard Univ.,
  • Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. II. Extremes in the range of variation of floral and inflorescence morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1930. The anatomy and morphology of the staminate inflorescence and flowers of the Betulaceae. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY33 plates + 30 p.
  • Anderson, E. 1964. The European hornbeam, Carpinus betulus. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 52: 13-4.
  • Anderson, E.; Abbe, E. C. 1934. A quantitative comparison of specific and generic differences in the Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 43-9.
  • Benson, M. E.; Sanday, E.; Berridge, E. 1906. Contribution to the embryology of the Amentiferae. Part II. Carpinus betulus. Trans. Linn. Soc. London Bot. 7: 37-44.
  • Berger, W. 1953. Studien zur Systematik und Geschichte der Gattung Carpinus. Bot. Not. 106: 1-47. (In German)
  • Bobrov, E. G. 1936. Carpinus L. (In Russian). Fl. URSS 5: 254-62.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Brinkman, J. A. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 309-17.
  • Brundrett, M.; Murase, G.; Kendrick, B. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 551-78. (French summary)
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Variation in shade leaf thickness among urban trees growing in metropolitan Lexington, Kentucky. Castanea 44: 94-8.
  • Chen, Z. D.; Manchester, S. R.; Sun, H. Y. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1168-1181.
  • Delcourt, H. R.; Delcourt, P. A. 1994. Postglacial rise and decline of Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch and Carpinus caroliniana Walt. in eastern North America: predictable responses of forest species to cyclic changes in seasonality of climates. J. Biogeogr. 21(2): 137-50.
  • Duncan, W. H. 1950. Preliminary reports on the flora of Georgia. 2. Distribution of 87 trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 43: 742-61.
  • Echternach, J. L.; Rose, R. K. 1987. Use of woody vegetation by beavers in southeastern Virginia USA. Virginia J. Sci. 38: 226-232.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1987. The Carpinus caroliniana complex in North America. I. A multivariate analysis of geographical variation. Syst. Bot. 12: 21-40.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1987. The Carpinus caroliniana complex in North America. II. Systematics. Syst. Bot. 12: 416-34.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1990. The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 1-67.
  • Hall, J. W. 1952. The comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Betulaceae. Bot. Gaz. 113(3): 235-70.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Bell, J. M. 1986. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants: IX. Betulaceae of eastern United States. Brittonia 38(2): 133-44.
  • Hockman, J. G.; Chapman, J. A. 1983. Comparative feeding habits of red foxes and gray foxes in Maryland. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 110: 276-285.
  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 421-30.
  • Jentys-Szaferowa, J. 1975. Studies on the epidermis of recent and fossil fruits of Carpinus and Ostrya and its significance in the systematics and history of these genera. Acta Palaeobot. 16: 3-70.
  • Johnsson, H. 1942. Die Chromosomenzahl von Carpinus betulus L. Hereditas 28: 228-30.
  • Jones, R. H.; Sharitz, R. R. 1989. Potential advantages and disadvantages of germinating early for trees in floodplain forests. Oecologia 81: 443-9.
  • Li, J. 2008. Sequences of low-copy nuclear gene support the monophyly of Ostrya and paraphyly of Carpinus (Betulaceae). J. Systematics Evol. 46: 333-340.
  • Matlack, G. R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 74(8): 1150-60.
  • Maycock, P. F. 1963. The phytosociology of the deciduous forests of extreme southern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 379-438.
  • Meurer-Grimes, B. 1995. New evidence for the systematic significance of acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of higher Hamamelidae. Brittonia 47(2): 130-42.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. Betulaceae through Cactaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 476. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 93 pages.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Richardson-Calfee, L. E. 2001. Effects of extended photoperiod and light quality on growth of Carpinus caroliniana, Fagus grandifolia and Gymnocladus dioicus seedlings. J. Environ. Hort. 19: 171-174.
  • Ricklefs, R. E.; Matthew, K. K. 1982. Chemical characteristics of the foliage of some deciduous trees in southeastern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2037-45.
  • Spach, E. 1842. Notes sur les Carpinus. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 16: 248-54. (In French)
  • Stults, D. Z.; Axsmith, B. J.; Haywick, D. 2002. Evidence of Carpinus (Betulaceae) in the late Tertiary (Pliocene) of Alabama. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1547-1549.
  • Sullivan, J. 1994. Carpinus caroliniana. ()
  • Vaitkus, M. R. et al. 1993. Growth and photosythesis of seedlings of five bottomland tree species following nutrient enrichment. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 129: 42-51.
  • Wardell, G. I.; Winstead, J. E. 1978. Population differences in bud bursting of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 39: 127-30.
  • Winkler, H. 1914. Neue Revision der Gattung Carpinus. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50: 488-508. (In German)
  • Winstead, J. E.; Smith, B. J.; Wardell, G. I. 1977. Fruit weight clines in populations of ash, ironwood, cherry, dogwood, and maple. Castanea 42: 56-60.
  • Woodworth, R. H. 1930. Cytological studies in the Betulaceae. IV. Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya, Ostryopsis.. Bot. Gaz. 90: 108-15.
  • Woodworth, R. H. 1931. Polyploidy in Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 12: 206-17.
  • Yoo, K. O.; Wen, J. 2002. Phylogeny and biogeography of Carpinus and subfamily Coryloideae (Betulaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 641-650.
  • Yoo, K. O.; Wen, J. 2007. Phylogeny of Carpinus and subfamily Coryloideae (Betulaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 267: 25-35.