Genus: Corylus

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 08/02/2013

Back to Betulaceae


Corylus L., Sp. Pl. 998. 1753. Gen. pl., ed.5, 433. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Corylus avellana L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Corylus

1. Petioles hairless or with glandless hairs; mature involucre 4-7 cm, with a long beak...Corylus cornuta
1. Petioles with glandular hairs; mature involucre 1.5-3 cm, without a long beak...2

2. Involucre nearly twice as long as nut, with laciniate lobes...Corylus americana
2. Involucre shorter or slightly longer than nut, with shallow lobes...Corylus avellana

List of Corylus Species

References to Corylus

  • Abbe, E. C. 1933. The inter-relationship of the genera of the Betulaceae, based on anatomical studies of the inflorescence, the flowers, and the secondary xylem. MS Thesis Harvard Univ.,
  • Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. II. Extremes in the range of variation of floral and inflorescence morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.
  • Abbe, E. C. 1930. The anatomy and morphology of the staminate inflorescence and flowers of the Betulaceae. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY33 plates + 30 p.
  • Anderson, E.; Abbe, E. C. 1934. A quantitative comparison of specific and generic differences in the Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 43-9.
  • Bobrov, E. G. 1936. Histoire et systematics du genre Corylus. Sovetsk. Bot. 1: 11-51.
  • Brunner, F.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1979. Serological investigation of the Corylaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 106: 97-103.
  • Buckman, R. E. 1964. Effects of prescribed burning on hazel in Minnesota. Ecology 45: 626-9.
  • Chamberlain, C. 1898. Winter characters of certain sporangia. Bot. Gaz. 25: 124-8.
  • Chaney, W. R.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal and diurnal expansion and contraction of fruits of forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 1033-8.
  • Chen, Z. D.; Manchester, S. R.; Sun, H. Y. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1168-1181.
  • Cheng, S. 1992. Isozyme variation and inheritance in hazelnut. Ph.D. Thesis Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR,
  • Coladoanto, M. 1993. Corylus americana. ()
  • Drumke, J. S. 1965. A systematic survey of Corylus in North America. Diss. Abstr. 25: 4925-6.
  • Drumke, J. S. 1964. A systematic survey of Corylus in North America. Ph.D. Thesis Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville,
  • Erdogan, V. 1999. Genetic relationships among hazelnut (Corylus) species. Ph.D. Thesis Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR,
  • Erdogan, V.; Mehlenbacher, S. A. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Corylus species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and chloroplast matK gene sequences. Syst. Bot. 25: 727-737.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1932. Corylus americana forma missouriensis. Rhodora 34(401): 96.
  • Forest, F.; Bruneau, A. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis, organization, and molecular evolution of the nontranscribed spacer of 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Corylus (Betulaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: 793-806.
  • Furlow, J. J. 1990. The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 1-67.
  • Hagerup, O. 1942. The morphology and biology of the Corylus fruit. Biol. Meddel. Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. 17: 1-32.
  • Hall, J. W. 1952. The comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Betulaceae. Bot. Gaz. 113(3): 235-70.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Bell, J. M. 1986. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants: IX. Betulaceae of eastern United States. Brittonia 38(2): 133-44.
  • Harris, G. H. 1926. The activity of apple and filbert roots especially during winter months. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 23: 414-22.
  • Hontova, T. M.; Khvorost, O. P.; Seryn, A. H. 1995. Comparative anatomy of Corylus L. plant leaves. Ukrayins'k Bot. Zhurn. 52(1): 57-62. (In Ukrainian: English summary)
  • Hsiung, W. W. Y. 1951. An ecological study of beaked hazel in the Cloquet Experimental Forest. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN,
  • Jaynes, R. A. (eds.) (1969): 1969. Handbook of North American nut trees. Northern Nut Growers Association, Knoxville, TN. , 421 pages.
  • Kasapligil, B. 1964. A contribution to the histotaxonomy of Corylus (Betulaceae). Adansonia 4: 43-90.
  • Kasapligil, B. 1972. A bibliography on Corylus (Betulaceae) with annotations. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 63: 107-162.
  • Kurmis, V.; Sucoff, E. 1989. Population density and height distribution of Corylus cornuta in undisturbed forests of Minnesota. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 2409-13. (French summary)
  • Martin, W. L.; Sharik, T. L.; Oderwald, R. G.; Smith, D. W. 1982. Phytomass: structural relationships for woody plant species in the understory of an Appalachian oak forest. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1923-7.
  • Meurer-Grimes, B. 1995. New evidence for the systematic significance of acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of higher Hamamelidae. Brittonia 47(2): 130-42.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. Betulaceae through Cactaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 476. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 93 pages.
  • Spach, E. 1842. Notes sur les Corylus. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 16: 98-108. (In French)
  • Talalay, L.; Keller, D. R.; Munson, P. J. 1984. Hickory nuts, walnuts, butternuts, and hazelnuts: observations and experiments relevant to their aboriginal exploitation in eastern North America. In: Experiments and observations in aboriginal wild food utilization in eastern North America. Vol. 6(2). Vol. Prehistoric Research Series. Indiana Historical Soc., Indianapolis, IN. ,
  • Tappeiner, J. C. 1971. Invasion and development of beaked hazel in red pine stands in northern Minnesota. Ecology 52: 514-9.
  • Tappeiner, J. C. 1979. Effects of fire and 2,4-D on the early stages of beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta understories. Weed Science 27: 162-6.
  • Watson, E. E. 1920. Corylus rostra. Addisonia 5: 25-26.
  • Whitcher, I. N.; Wen, J. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of Corylus (Betulaceae): inferences from ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 26: 283
  • Wiegand, K. M. 1909. Recognition of Corylus rostrata and Corylus americana. Rhodora 11: 107.
  • Woodworth, R. H. 1931. Polyploidy in Betulaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 12: 206-17.
  • Woodworth, R. H. 1929. Cytological studies in the Betulaceae. II. Corylus and Alnus. Bot. Gaz. 88: 383-99.
  • Yoo, K. O.; Wen, J. 2007. Phylogeny of Carpinus and subfamily Coryloideae (Betulaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 267: 25-35.
  • Zielinski, Q. B. 1968. Techniques for collecting, handling, germinating, and storing pollen of the filbert (Corylus spp.). Euphytica 17: 121-5.