Genus: Lonicera

Lonicera sempervirens
Lonicera sempervirens   L.  -  Trumpet Honeysuckle
Photo © by Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Photo taken bt G. A. Kalmbacher in Jamaica, NY.

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/15/2013

Back to Caprifoliaceae


Lonicera L., Sp. Pl. 1: 173. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed.5, 80. 1754. Caprifolium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). Euchylia Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées 463. 1867, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). LECTOTYPE: Lonicera caprifolium L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913), or Lonicera xylosteum designated by Rehder (1949).

Xylosteon Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. ed. 4. 1754. TYPE: Xylosteon pyrenaicum (L.) Dum. Cour. (=Lonicera pyrenaica L.).

Periclymenum Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. ed. 4. 1754. TYPE: Not designated.

Chamaecerasus Duhamel, Traite Arb. Arbust. 1: 153. 1755. Chamerasia Raf., Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 6: 83. 1820. TYPE: Not designated.

Phenianthus Raf., Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 6: 83. 1820. TYPE: Unknown.

Nintooa Sweet, Hort. Brit. (Sweet) (ed. 2), 258. 1830. TYPE: Unknown.

Key to the species of Lonicera

 1. Woody vines...2
1. Shrubs...4

2. Flowers and fruits sessile; all leaves petiolate...Lonicera japonica
2. Flowers and fruits stalked; upper leaves connate...3

3. Corolla strongly bilabiate, less than 2.7 cm in length; all leaves connate...Lonicera dioica
3. Corolla scarcely bilabiate, greater than 2.7 cm in length; some lower leaves petiolate...Lonicera sempervirens

4. Flowers and fruits sessile...Lonicera maackii
4. Flowers and fruits stalked...5

5. Flowers appearing before the leaves expand...Lonicera fragrantissima
5. Flowers appearing after the leaves expand...6

6. Style glabrous...Lonicera canadensis
6. Style hirsute...7

7. Corolla strongly bilabiate...Lonicera xylosteum
7. Corolla scarcely bilabiate...8

8. Leaves glabrous beneath; peduncles 1.5 to 2.5 cm...Lonicera tatarica
8. Leaves hairy beneath; peduncles 0.5 to 1.5 cm...Lonicera morrowii
(Note: Lonicera ×bella, the hybrid between L. tatarica and L. morrowii combines characters of both species and is very difficult to separate from its parents).

List of Lonicera Species

References to Lonicera

  • Ahlgren, C. E.; Ahlgren, I. F. 1981. Some effects of different forest litters on seed germination and growth. Canad. J. Forest Res. 11: 710-714.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1939. Lonicera canadensis. Addisonia 21: 9.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1944. Lonicera maackii erubescens. Addisonia 22: 31-2.
  • Ambler, M. A. 1965. Seven alien plant species. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 2: 1-8.
  • Andrews, E. F. 1919. The Japanese honeysuckle in the eastern United States. Torreya 19: 37-43.
  • Anonymous 1884. Proceedings of the Torrey Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 11: 139-40.
  • Antonen, A. 1990. Combating porcelain berry, bittersweet, and Lonicera maackii at Wave Hill.
  • Arber, E. A. N. 1903. On the synanthy in the genus Lonicera. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35: 463-74.
  • Artiushenko, Z. T. 1951. On the nature of the giant cells in the ovary of Lonicera L. (In Russian). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 36: 532-4.
  • Baillon, H. 1880. Rubiacees. Hist. Pl. 7: 257-503. (In French)
  • Barden, L. S.; Matthews, J. F. 1980. Change in abundance of honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and other ground flora after prescribed burning of a piedmont pine forest. Castanea 45: 257-60.
  • Barnes, W. 1972. Some aspects of the ecology of honeysuckle in the arboretum. Arboretum News Univ. Wisconsin 21(2): 1-6.
  • Barnes, W. J. 1972. The autoecology of the Lonicera x bella complex. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Madison,
  • Barnes, W. J.; Cottam, G. 1974. Some autoecological studies of the Lonicera x bella complex. Ecology 55: 40-50. (see also Diss. Abstr. Int., B, 33(6):2560. 1972.)
  • Bartuszevige, A. M. 2006. Weather-related patterns of fruit abscission mask patterns of frugivory. Canad. J. Bot. 84: 869-875. (Lonicera maackii)
  • Bartuszevige, A. M. 2006. The relative importance of landscape and community features in the invasion of an exotic shrub in a fragmented landscape. Ecography 29: 213-222.
  • Bartuszevige, A. M. 2007. Effects of leaf litter on establishment, growth and survival of invasive plant seedlings in a deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 158: 472-477. (Alliaria petiolata & Lonicera maackii)
  • Bartuszevige, A. M.; Gorchov, D. L. 2006. Avian dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biological Invasions 8: 1013-1022.
  • Batcher, M. S.; Stiles, S. A. 2000. Element stewardship abstract for Lonicera - bush honeysuckles. (L. maackii, L. morrowii, L. tatarica, & L. x bella)
  • Bell, D. J.; Forseth, I. N.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Field water relations of three temperate vines. Oecologia 74: 537-45.
  • Boynton, K. R. 1925. Lonicera fragratissima. Addisonia 10: 41-2.
  • Brender, E. V. 1960. Progress report on control of honeysuckle and kudzu. So. Weed Conf. Proc. 13: 187-93.
  • Brender, E. V. 1961. Control of honeysuckle and kudzu.
  • Broadhurst, J. 1909. Fasciation in Japan honeysuckle. Torreya 9: 208-9.
  • Brown, W. T. 2001. Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21: 189-196.
  • Caiazza, N. A.; Quinn, J. A. 1980. Leaf morphology in Arenaria patula and Lonicera japonica along a pollution gradient. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 9-18.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Vine photosynthesis and relationships to climbing mechanics in a forest understory. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 1011-8.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Nonsummer stomatal conductance for the invasive vines kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 2392-5.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N. 1989. Photosynthesis in an open field for exotic versus native vines of the southeastern United States. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 443-6. (French summary)
  • Castellano, S. M.; Boyce, R. L. 2007. Spatial patterns of Juniperus virginiana and Lonicera maackii on a road cut in Kentucky, USA. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 188-198.
  • Chiu, S. T. 1992. Xylem structure and water transport in a twiner, a scrambler, and a shrub of Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae). Trees-Berlin 6: 216-224.
  • Cipollini, D. 2008. Contrasting effects of allelochemicals from two invasive plants on the performance of a nonmycorrhizal plant. Int. J. Plant Sci. 169: 371-375. (Alliaria petiolata & Lonicera maackii)
  • Cipollini, D.; Dorning, M. 2008. Direct and indirect effects of conditioned soils and tissue extracts of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, on target plant performance. Castanea 73: 166-176.
  • Cipollini, K. A. 2008. Separating above- and belowground effects of Alliaria petiolata and Lonicera maackii on the performance of Impatiens capensis. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 160: 117-128.
  • Cochrane, T. S. 1995. Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) naturalized in Wisconsin. Michigan Bot. 34: 79-83.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Lonicera japonica. ()
  • Collier, M. H. 1997. Diminished plant richness and abundance below crowns of Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. M.S. Thesis Miami Univ., Oxford, OH57 p.
  • Collier, M. H.; Vankat, J. L. 2002. Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 147: 60-71.
  • Coombs, G. 1999. Delayed Glyphosate treatment of honeysuckle stumps in effective (Wisconsin). Ecological Restoration 17: 88. (Lonicera x bella)
  • Cram, W. H. 1982. Seed germination of elder (Sambucus pubens) and honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica). Hortscience 17: 618-619.
  • De Vos, F. 1951. The stem anatomy of some species of the Caprifoliaceae with reference to phylogeny and identification of the species. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY81 p.
  • Deering, R. H.; Vankat, J. L. 1999. Forest colonization and developmental growth of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 141: 43-50.
  • Demars, B. G.; Boerner, R. E. J. 1997. Foliar nutrient dynamics and resorption in naturalized Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) populations in Ohio, USA. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 112-7.
  • Dillenburg, L. R. 1991. Competitive interactions between the vines Lonicera japonica or Parthenocissus quinquefolia and the tree host Liquidambar styraciflua- effects and mechanisms. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD,
  • Dillenburg, L. R.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N.; Whigham, D. F. 1995. Photosynthetic and biomass allocation responses of Liquidambar styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae) to vine competition. Amer. J. Bot. 82(4): 454-61.
  • Dillenburg, L. R.; Whigham, D. F.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N. 1993. Effects of vine competition of availability of light, water, and nitrogen to a tree host Liquidambar styraciflua. Amer. J. Bot. 80: 244-52.
  • Dillenburg, L. R.; Whigham, D. F.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N. 1993. Effects of below and above ground competition from the vines Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia on the growth of the tree host Liquidambar styraciflua. Oecologia 93: 48-54.
  • Donoghue, M. J. 1985. Pollen diversity and exine evolution in Viburnum and the Caprifoliaceae sensu lato. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 421-469.
  • Dorning, M.; Cipollini, D. 2006. Leaf and root extracts of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, inhibit seed germination of three herbs with no autotoxic effects. Plant Ecology 184: 287-296.
  • Drummond, B. A. 2005. The selection of native and invasive plants by frugivorous birds in Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 33-44.
  • Evans, J. E. 1984. Japanese honeysuckle (lonicera japonica). A literature review of management practices. Natural Areas Journal 4: 4-10.
  • Ferguson, I. K. 1966. The genera of the Caprifoliaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 33-59.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1925. The American representatives of Lonicera caerulea. Rhodora 27: 1-11.
  • Fernald, M. L.; Wiegand, K. M. 1910. The variations of Lonicera caerulea in Eastern America. Rhodora 12: 209-11.
  • Field, R. J.; Mitchell, W. A. 1988. Bush honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.). Section 7.5.5.
  • Friedland, A. J.; Smith, A. P. 1982. Effects of vines on successional herbs. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 108: 402-3.
  • Fukuoka, N. 1974. Taxonomy of the Caprifoliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 26(1-2): 18-27. (In Japanese)
  • Gasson, P. 1979. The identification of eight woody genera of the Caprifoliaceae by selected features of their root anatomy. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 78: 267-284.
  • Gayek, A.; Quigley, M. F. 2001. Does topography affect the colonization of Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum vulgare in a forested glen in southwestern Ohio? Ohio J. Science 101: 95-100.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1995. Honeybees (Apis sp.) visiting honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii) flowers.
  • Goodell, K. 2010. Pollen limitation and local habitat-dependent pollinator interactions in the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. Int. J. Plant Sci. 171: 63-72.
  • Gorchov, D. L.; Trisel, D. E. 2003. Competitive effects of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder (Caprifoliaceae), on the growth and survival of native tree seedlings. Plant Ecology 166: 13-24.
  • Gorham, E.; Gordon, A. G. 1960. Some effects of smelter pollution northeast of Falconbridge, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 38: 307-12.
  • Gould, A. M. A. 1996. Effects of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle, on native forest annual herbs. M.S. Thesis Miami Univ., Oxford, OH68 p.
  • Gould, A. M. A.; Gorchov, D. L. 2000. Effects of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on the survival and fecundity of three species of native annuals. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 144: 36-50.
  • Graenicher, S. 1900. The fertilization of Symphoricarpos and Lonicera. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 141-156.
  • Gray, A. 1883. Lonicera grata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 10: 94-5.
  • Green, P. S. 1966. Identification of the species and hybrids in the Lonicera tartarica complex. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 75-88.
  • Hardt, R. A. 1986. Japanese honeysuckle: from "one of the best" to ruthless pest. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 46: 27-34.
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin I. Oecologia 80: 356-367.
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin II. Oecologia 80: 368-373.
  • Hartman, K. M.; McCarthy, B. C. 2007. A dendro-ecological study of forest overstorey productivity following the invasion of the non-indigenous shrub Lonicera maackii. Applied Veg. Sci. 10: 3-14.
  • Hartman, K. M.; McCarthy, B. C. 2008. Changes in forest structure and species composition following invasion by a non-indigenous shrub, Amue honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 135: 245-259.
  • Hauser, E. 1966. The natural occurrence of a hybrid honeysuckle (Lonicera x bella) in Ohio and Michigan. Michigan Bot. 5: 211-7.
  • Heale, E. L.; Ormrod, D. P. 1982. Effects of nickle and copper on Acer rubrum, Cornus stolonifera, Lonicera tatarica, and Pinus resinosa. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2674-81.
  • Herron, P.M. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Hidayati, S. N. 2000. A comparative study of seed dormancy in five genera of Caprifoliaceae s.l. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Kentucky, Lexington,
  • Hidayati, S. N.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 2002. Effects of dry storage on germination and survivorship of seeds of four Lonicera species (Caprifoliaceae). Seed Sci. Tech. 30: 137-148.
  • Hidayati, S. N.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 2000. Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of seeds of four Lonicera species (Caprifoliaceae) with underdeveloped spatulate embryos. Seed Sci. Res. 10: 459-469.
  • Hill, S. R.; Horn, C. N. 1997. Additions to the Flora of South Carolina. Castanea 62: 194-208. (Lonicera morrowii in SC)
  • Hillebrand, G. R.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1970. Phytoserological systematic survey of the Caprifoliaceae. Brittonia 22: 125-133. (Also Cornus & Nyssa)
  • Huebner, C. D. 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea 68: 1-14.
  • Hunter, J. C.; Mattice, J. A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 220-227.
  • Hutchinson, J. 1944. Pollination of the honeysuckle. Gard. Chron. 116: 24.
  • Hutchinson, T. F. 1995. Invasion of deciduous forests in southwestern Ohio by the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii: community and landscape studies. M.S. Thesis Miami Univ., Oxford, OH,
  • Hutchinson, T. F.; Vankat, J. L. 1997. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in southwestern Ohio forests. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1117-24.
  • Hutchinson, T. F.; Vankat, J. L. 1998. Landscape structure and spread of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) in southwestern Ohio forests. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 139: 383-90.
  • Ingold, J. L.; Craycraft, M. J. 1983. Avian frugivory on honeysuckle (Lonicera) in southwestern Ohio U.S.A. Ohio J. Science 83: 256-258.
  • Janaki Ammal, E. K.; Saunders, B. 1952. Chromosome numbers in species of Lonicera. Kew Bull. 7: 539-541.
  • Kemp, E. L. 1924. Some observations on Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle). Torreya 24: 103-4.
  • Kline, V. 1981. Control of honeysuckle and buckthorn in oak forests. Restor. Manag. Notes 1: 18.
  • Krefting, L. W.; Roe, E. I. 1949. The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecol. Monogr. 19: 269-286.
  • Ladwig, L. M.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Liana host preference and implications for deciduous forest regeneration. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 103-112.
  • Lamond, M. 1974. Concaulescences et gamophyllies atypiques dans le genre Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae). M.S. Thesis Univ. Montreal, Canada, (In French)
  • Larson, B. M. H. 2007. The biology of Canadian weeds. 135. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 87: 423-438.
  • Larson, K. C. 2000. Circumnutation behavoir of an exotic honeysuckle vine and its native congener: influence on clonal mobility. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 533-538.
  • Larson, K. C. 2002. Lack of pollinators limits fruit set in the exotic Lonicera japonica. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 148: 54-60.
  • Leatherman, A. D. 1955. Ecological life-history of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN97 p. (see also Diss. Abstr. 15:1987. 1955.)
  • Lovell, J. H. 1900. The visitors of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. Naturalist 34: 37-51.
  • Luken, J. O. 1988. Population structure and biomass allocation of the naturalized shrub Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. in forest and open habits. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 258-67.
  • Luken, J. O. 1990. Forest and pasture communities respond differently to cutting of exotic Amur honeysuckle (Kentucky). Restor. Manag. Notes 8: 122-3.
  • Luken, J. O.; Goessling, N. 1995. Seedling distribution and potential persistence of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii in fragmented forests. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 133: 124-30.
  • Luken, J. O.; Kuddes, L. M.; Tholemeier, T. C.; Haller, D. M. 1997. Comparative responses of Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) and Lindera benzoin (spicebush) to increased light. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 138: 331-43.
  • Luken, J. O.; Mattimiro, D. T. 1991. Habitat-specific resilience of the invasion shrub Amur honeysuckle Lonicera maackii during repeated clipping. Ecol. Applic. 1: 104-9.
  • Luken, J. O.; Thieret, J. W. 1995. Amur honeysuckle: Its fall from grace.
  • Luken, J. O.; Thieret, J. W. 1995. Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii: Caprifoliaceae): its ascent, decline, and fall. Sida 16(3): 479-503.
  • Luken, J. O.; Thieret, J. W. 1996. Amur honeysuckle, its fall from grace. Lessons from the introdution and spread of a shrub species may guide future plant introductions. Bioscience 46(1): 18-24.
  • Luken, J. O.; Thieret, J. W. 1997. Amur honeysuckle, its fall from grace. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 57: 2-12.
  • Luken, J. O.; Tholemeier, T. C.; Kuddes, L. M.; Kunkel, B. A. 1995. Performance, plasticity, and acclimation of nonindigenous shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) in contrasting light environments. Canad. J. Bot. 73(12): 1953-61. (See also Bull. Ecolog. Soc. America 76:161)
  • Luken, J. O.; Tholemeier, T. C.; Kunkel, B. A.; Kuddes, L. M. 1995. Branch architecture plasticity of Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder): Initial response in extreme light environments. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 122: 190-5.
  • Maciejewska, I. 1998. Seed and stone morphology of the Polish species of the family Caprifoliaceae. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 43: 189-214.
  • Mack, R. N. 2003. Plant naturalizations and invasions in the eastern United States: 1634-1860. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 77-90.
  • Mayberry, M. W. 1935. Comparative anatomical research within the genus Lonicera. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22: 27-53.
  • McCusker, C. E. 2010. Seasonal responses of avian communities to invasive bush honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.). Biological Invasions 12: 2459-2470.
  • McDonnell, M. J.; Stiles, E. W. 1983. The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56: 109-16.
  • McEvoy, N. L.; Durtsche, R. D. 2004. Effect of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae; Amur honeysuckle) on autumn herpetofauna biodiversity. J. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 65: 27-32.
  • McEwan, R. W. 2009. Leaf phenology and freeze tolerance of the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle and potential native competitors. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 212-230.
  • McKinney, A. M.; Goodell, K. 2010. Shading by invasive shrub reduces seed production and pollinator services in a native herb. Biological Invasions 12: 2751-2763.
  • McRae, W. A.; Schierenbeck, K. A.; Mack, R. N.; Sharitz, R. R. 1980. Unusual bobwhite foods on abandoned piedmont farmlands Georgia USA. Georgia Journal of Science 38: 49-54.
  • McVaugh, R. 1952. Suggested phylogeny of Prunus serotina and other wide ranging phylads in North America. Brittonia 7: 317-346. (And other genera)
  • Meiners, S. J. 2007. Apparent competition: an impact of exotic shrub invasion on tree regeneration. Biological Invasions 9: 849-855. (Lonicera maackii & Rosa multiflora)
  • Merriam, R. 1999. Winter spraying of Glyphosate kills honeysuckle, does no damage to groundlayer plants (North Carolina). Ecological Restoration 17: 87. (Lonicera japonica)
  • Merriam, R. W. 2003. The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North Carolina. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 283-291.
  • Miller, K. E.; Gorchov, D. L. 2004. The invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, reduces growth and fecundity of perennial forest herbs. Oecologia 139: 359-375.
  • Miyake, T.; Yahara, T. 1998. Why does the flower of Lonicera japonica open at dusk? Canad. J. Bot. 76: 1806-1811.
  • Myers, J. A. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Nuzzo, V. A. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for Lonicera japonica- Japanese honeysuckle.
  • Nuzzo, V. A. 1997. Element stewardship abstract for Lonicera japonica. (22 pp.)
  • Nyboer, R. 1992. Vegetation management guideline: Bush honeysuckles - Tatarian, Morrow's, Belle, and Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica L., L. morrowii Gray, L. x bella Zabel, and L. maackii [Rupr.] Maxim.). Natural Areas Journal 12: 218-219.
  • Patterson, D. T. 1976. The history and distribution of five exotic weeds in North Carolina. Castanea 41: 177-80.
  • Penfound, W. T. 1974. The role of vines in plant communities. Advancing Frontiers Pl. Sci. 17: 187-92.
  • Pisula, N. L.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Relative allelopathic potential of invasive plant species in a young disturbed woodland. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 81-87.
  • Pixler, V. A. 1950. The Caprifoliaceae of West Virginia. Castanea 15: 80-91.
  • Plekhanova, M. N.; Vishnyakova, M. A. 1985. Characteristic features of pollination and fertilization in honeysuckle of the subsection Caeruleae Rehd. Sborn. Nauch. Tr. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 99: 111-5. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Pringle, J. S. 1973. Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) adventive in Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 87(1): 54-5.
  • Regehr, D. L.; Frey, D. R. 1988. Selective control of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica). Weed Technol. 2: 139-143.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1903. Synopsis of the genus Lonicera. Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 27-232.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1909. Note on the morphology of the fruit of Lonicera caerulea. Rhodora 11: 209-11.
  • Resasco, J. 2007. Detecting an invasive shrub in a deciduous forest understory using late-fall Landsat sensor imagery. Int. J. Remote Sensing 28: 3739-3745. (Lonicera maackii)
  • Roberts, A. V. 1979. The pollination of Lonicera japonica. Journal of Apicultural Research 18: 153-158.
  • Robertson, D. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Tague, T. 1994. Colonization dynamics of four exotic plants in a northern Piedmont natural area. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 107-18.
  • Rodewald, A. D. 2010. Exotic shrubs as ephemeral ecological traps for nesting birds. Biological Invasions 12: 33-39. (Lonicera maackii, Rosa multiflora)
  • Roels, P.; Smets, E. F. 1996. A floral ontogenetic study in the Dipsacales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 203-218.
  • Ruesink, A. 1998. Links between land use and Lonicera: patterns of honeysuckle invasion in a post-agricultural landscape. M.S. Thesis Univ. Vermont,
  • Rüdenberg, L. 1969. A karyological study of Lonicera, II. J. Arnold Arbor. 50: 449-51.
  • Rüdenberg, L.; Green, P. S. 1966. A karyological survey of Lonicera I. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 222-47.
  • Sasek, T. W. 1983. Growth and biomass allocation patterns of Lonicera japonica Thunb. and Lonicera sempervirens L. under carbon dioxide enrichment. M.S. Thesis Duke University, Durham, NC,
  • Sasek, T. W. 1985. Implications of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment for the physiological ecology and distribution of two introduced woody vines, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (kudzu) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle). Ph.D. Dissertation Duke University, Durham, NC,
  • Sasek, T. W.; Strain, B. R. 1991. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and morphology of a native and an introduced honeysuckle vine. Amer. J. Bot. 78(1): 69-75.
  • Sax, K.; Kribs, D. A. 1930. Chromosomes and phylogeny in Caprifoliaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 11: 147-153.
  • Schierenbeck, K. A. 1992. Comparative ecological and genetic studies between a native (Lonicera sempervirens L.) and an introduced cogener (L. japonica Thunb.). Ph.D. Dissertation Washington State Univ., Pullman,
  • Schierenbeck, K. A. 1995. Comparison of allozyme variability in a native and an introduced species of Lonicera. Heredity 75: 1-9.
  • Schierenbeck, K. A.; Mack, R. N.; Sharitz, R. R. 1994. Effects of herbivory on growth and biomass allocation in native and introduced species of Lonicera. Ecology 75: 1661-1672.
  • Schierenbeck, K. A.; Marshall, J. D. 1993. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of photosynthetic gas exchange for Lonicera sempervirens and L. japonica (Caprifoliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 1292-9.
  • Schmidt, K. A.; Whelan, C. J. 1999. Effects of exotic Lonicera and Rhamnus on songbird nest predation. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1502-1506.
  • Schweitzer, J. A.; Larson, K. C. 1999. Greater morphological plasticity of exotic honeysuckle species may make them better invaders than native species. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 15-23.
  • Shahid, A. 2009. Selection of seeds of common native and non-native plants by granivorous rodents in the northeastern United States. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 162: 207-212.
  • Sheldon, J. J.; Caisy, K. 1974. Use of Japanese honeysuckle by white tailed deer. J. Forest. 72: 286-287.
  • Sherburne, J. A. 1972. Effects of seasonal changes in the abundance and chemistry of the fleshy fruits of northeastern woody shrubs on patterns of exploitation by frugivorous birds. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell University, Ithaca, NY157 p.
  • Shipman, R. D. 1962. Establishing forest plantations on areas occupied by kudzu and honeysuckle.
  • Sims, J. 1804. Lonicera sempervirens. Bot. Mag. 20: pl. 781.
  • Slezak, W. F. 1976. Lonicera japonica Thunb., an aggresive introduced species in a mature forest ecosystem. M.S. Thesis Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ81 p.
  • Southwick, E. E. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
  • Staszkiewicz, J. 1997. The variability of leaves of species of Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae). Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 0 (Suppl. 2): 277-295. (In Polish)
  • Suthers, H. B. 2000. Use of successional habitat and fruit resources by songbirds during autumn migration in central New Jersey. Wilson Bull. 112: 249-260.
  • Teuscher, H. 1932. Lonicera morrowii xanthocarpa. Addisonia 17: 37-8.
  • Theis, N. 2008. Phylogenetics of the Caprifoliaceae and Lonicera (Dipsacales) based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences Syst. Bot. 33: 776-783.
  • Tholemeier, T. C.; Luken, J. O. 1996. Unusual dimensions of Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae). Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 57: 127-128.
  • Thomas, L. K. 1980. Winter growth of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) on Theodore Roosevelt Island, District of Columbia.
  • Todd, R. 1985. Honeysuckle controlled by hand pulling. Restor. Manag. Notes 3: 41.
  • Trisel, D. E. 1997. The invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder (Caprifoliaceae): factors contributing to its success and its effect on native species. Ph.D. Dissertation Miami Univ., Oxford, OH200 p.
  • Trisel, D. E.; Gorchov, D. L. 1994. Regional distribution, ecological impact, and leaf phenology of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 75: 231. (Abstract)
  • Tyler, A. A. 1894. An examination of the pubescence of the styles and filaments of Lonicera hirsuta Eaton, L. sullivantii Gray and L. glauca Hill. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 123-6.
  • Vellend, M. 2002. A pest and an invader: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.) as a seed dispersal agent for honeysuckle shrubs (Lonicera L.). Natural Areas Journal 22: 230-234.
  • Webb, S. L.; Pendergast, T. H.; Dwyer, M. E. 2001. Response of native and exotic maple seedling banks to removal of the exotic, invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 141-149.
  • Webster, C. R. 2007. Invasion biology and control of invasive woody plants in eastern forests. Native Plants J. 8: 97-106.
  • West, N. M. 2010. Microhabitat analysis of the invasive exotic liana Lonicera japonica Thunb. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 380-390.
  • Wilkinson, A. M. 1948. Floral anatomy and morphology of some species of the tribe Lonicereae of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 261-271.
  • Wilkinson, A. M. 1945. The floral anatomy and morphology of some species of Cornus and of the Caprifoliaceae. , Thesis Cornell Univ.148 p.
  • Williams, C. E.; Ralley, J. J.; Taylor, D. H. 1992. Consumption of seeds of the invasive Amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim., by small mammals. Natural Areas Journal 12: 86-9.
  • Witmer, M. C. 1996. Consequences of an alien shrub on the plumage coloration and ecology of cedar waxwings. Auk 113: 735-743.
  • Woods, K. D. 1993. Effects of invasion by Lonicera tatarica L. on herbs and tree seedlings in four New England forests. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 130: 62-74.
  • Zaitsev, G. N. 1958. The significance of seed characters for the taxonomy of the genus Lonicera L. (In Russian). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 43: 836-40.