New York Metropolitan Flora

Leiophyllum buxifolium (Bergius) Elliott - Sand Myrtle

Leiophyllum buxifolium
Leiophyllum buxifolium (Bergius) Elliott

Sand Myrtle

Photo © Peter Nelson, 1967, taken in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

Native , Historical

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/08/2013

Back to Leiophyllum

Leiophyllum buxifolium
This species was last seen in our area in 1939.

Common Names

Sand Myrtle

Field Identification

 Small shrub of bogs and dry pine barrens with small entire leaves and small 5-merous flowers.

Nomenclature

¤Ledum buxifolium Bergius, Acta Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. 1777(1): 214, t. 3, fig. 2. 1778. *Dendrium buxifolium (Bergius) Desv., J. Bot. (Desvaux) 1: 36. 1813, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Ammyrsine buxifolia (Bergius) Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 301. 1814, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Leiophyllum buxifolium (Bergius) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 483. 1817. *Fischera buxifolia (Bergius) Sw., Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 177. 1817, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Unknown (Holotype: SBT?).

¤Ledum palustre var. thymifolium Lodd., A catalogue of plants and seeds which are sold by Conrad Loddiges, London. 1777.4-1783.8. [ref. in (Ludwig, 1783)]. *Ledum palustre var. thymifolium C. F. Ludw., Neuere. Wilde Baumz. 3. 1783, nom. inval. (Art. 32.1c). *Ledum thymifolium Marshall, Cat. Alph. Arbr. 117. 1788 *Leiophyllum thymifolium (Marshall) Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 2, 298. 1818. TYPE: United States. New Jersey (Holotype: DWC?) for Marshall name.

*Ammyrsine lyoni Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 2, 344. 1830, nom. inval. (Art. 32.1c). *Ammyrsine prostrata Loudon, Hort. Brit., ed. 2, 477. 1832, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Leiophyllum prostratum (Loudon) Loudon, Arbor. Frutic. Brit. 2: 1155. 1838. *Leiophyllum lyoni Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3, 444. 1839, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Dendrium buxifolium var. prostratum (Loudon) Ashe, Bot. Gaz. 24: 377. 1897, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Dendrium prostratum (Loudon) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 882, 1336. 1903, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Dendrium lyoni (Sweet) Small, N. Amer. Fl. 29: 39. 1914, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Type not cited.

*Leiophyllum serpylifolium DC., Prodr. 7, 2: 730. 1839. *Ledum serpylifolium (DC.) L'Hér. ex DC., Prodr. 7, 2: 730. 1839, nom. inval. (Art. 34.1c). TYPE: Location unknown, Michaux s.n. (Holotype: G). [erect, leaves opposite, capsule sparsely puberulent]

*Dendrium hugeri Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 360. 1901, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). *Leiophyllum buxifolium var. hugeri (Small) C. K. Schneid., Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 512. 1911. ¤Leiophyllum hugeri (Small) Bergmans, Vaste Pl. Rotsheest 314. 1924. *Dendrium buxifolium var. hugeri (Small) H. F. Copel., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 30: 568. 1943, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: United States. South Carolina: top of Table Mtn., Aug 1896, J. K. Small s.n. (Holotype: NY!). [larger and more erect, filaments about as long as corolla lobes, capsule about twice as long as the calyx lobes]

Description

HABIT perennial, evergreen, chamaephyte, shrubs, autotrophic, monoclinous, with adventitious roots or with fibrous roots, (0.07-)0.15-0.25(-0.3) m tall, not modified or with rhizomes.

STEMS erect or ascending, round, not winged, "regular". Prickles absent. Bark fibrous, not exfoliating, gray or black. Branches erect or ascending, gray, round, not winged, 1-2 mm in diam. Twigs dark red or light orange-red or dark gray, not odoriferous, round, 0.7-1 mm in diam., smooth, hairs short and unbranched, erect, unicellular, uniseriate, white, moderately dense, throughout, not glabrescent, without glands. Pith present, light orange-yellow, round, continuous, nodal diaphragm absent. Thorns absent. Aerial roots absent. Sap translucent. Resin absent.

LEAVES alternate or subopposite, 1 per node or 2 per node, spaced evenly along stem, divergent from stem, simple. Stipules absent. Leaves petiolate, petiole "typical", 0.6-1.3 cm long, hairs short and unbranched, erect, unicellular, uniseriate, sparse or moderately dense, throughout (usually on abaxial surfaces), not glabrescent, without glands. Leaf: abaxial surface light orange-yellow or light greenish yellow, adaxial surface yellowish green, blades narrowly elliptic or narrow oblong or elliptic or oblong, curved, symmetric, 0.3-0.8 cm long, 0.15-0.3 cm wide, coriaceous, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous, without glands, adaxial surface glabrous, without glands. Hyphodromous venation, veins 0. Leaf lobes absent. Spines absent. Tendrils absent.

INFLORESCENCES monomorphic, regular or, if dimorphic, female inflorescence simple, corymbose raceme, terminal. Peduncle absent, Rachis present, 0.5-0.7 cm long, with bracts. Bracts sessile, blades: abaxial surface light greenish yellow, adaxial surface yellowish green, narrow oblong or lanceolate or oblong or ovate, curved, 1.1-3.3 mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide, base truncate, margin ciliate, apex acute or obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous, without glands, adaxial surface glabrous, without glands. Pedicel 3.5-5.5 mm long, glabrous or hairs short and unbranched, hairs erect, unicellular, uniseriate, white, sparse, throughout, glabrescent (?), without glands. Bracteoles 2, sessile, at base of pedicel, not connate, bracteoles: abaxial surface light greenish yellow, bracteole: adaxial surface yellowish green, ovate, curved, 1-1.5 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm wide, base truncate, margin ciliate, apex acute or obtuse. Cupules absent.

FLOWERS serotinous, formed on long shoots, monomorphic, with sepals and petals readily distinguishable from one another, bisexual, flowers white or light red, 5-merous, 2.2-4.2 mm long, 2.7-5 mm wide, 7-12 flowers per inflorescence, fragrance present (?), perianth of two whorls. Calyx present, actinomorphic, crateriform or campanulate, of free sepals, persistent, abaxial and adaxial surfaces the same color, light greenish yellow, sometimes dark red near apex, 1.2-1.8 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide. Sepals or sepal lobes 5, lanceolate or ovate, 1.2-1.8 mm long, 0.6-0.7 mm wide, base truncate, margin entire, apex acute, abaxial surface glabrous, without glands, adaxial surface glabrous, without glands. Epicalyx absent. Corolla present, actinomorphic, campanulate, of free petals, deciduous, abaxial and adaxial surfaces the same color, white or light red, uniform, 3-3.5 mm long, 3.1-4.4 mm wide. Petals or petal lobes 5, "normal", narrowly elliptic or elliptic, 3-3.5 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm wide, base acute, margin entire, apex obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous, without glands, adaxial surface glabrous, without glands. Gynoecium syncarpous. Carpels (2-)3(-5). Stigmas 1, truncate. Styles persistent, 1, 1.9-3.5 mm long. Ovary superior, 0.8-1.1 mm long, 0.6-0.7 mm wide, nectiferous disk present, with scattered glandular hairs. Locules (2-)3(-5). Placentation axile (?). Androecium obdiplostemonous. Stamens 10, 1.4-3.1 mm long, of two discrete lengths: 1.4-1.5 and 2.0-3.1. Anthers oblong, opening along the long axis, opening entire length of anther, bithecal, dark red or dark reddish violet or dark violet-red, glabrous, Filaments free, straight, white or light red, hairs short and unbranched, erect, unicellular, uniseriate. Staminodes absent.

FRUITS septicidal capsules, light greenish yellow or light yellowish green (with dark red blotches), ovoid, 1.3-2.9 mm long, 1.1-2.3 mm wide, hairs long and unbranched, appressed, multicellular, multiseriate, translucent, sparse, throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange or dark orange.

SEEDS many, yellowish orange, ovoid to spherical, 0.2-0.5 mm long, 0.2-0.3 mm wide, wingless, not tailed, reticulate-foveate.

Habitat

(Wherry, 1920)

Open peatlands and open uplands. Bogs and dry sandy pine barrens. Soils are somewhat acidic.

Rarity Status

Heritage global rank -- ?

New Jersey -- Not listed

Species Biology

Flowering

May [week 1] - May [week 4].

Pollination

(Strand & Wyatt, 1991)

Melittophily -- Small bees.

Myophily.

Fruiting

June [week 3] - August [week 3].

Dispersal

(Strand & Wyatt, 1991)

Anemochory -- "Seed dispersal in Leiophyllum is...most likely by gravity due to small seed size"(Strand & Wyatt, 1991).

Germination

(Young & Young, 1992)

Light required: "Seeds should be sown on the surface of substrate and require light"(Young & Young, 1992).