New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Fagaceae

Fagus grandifolia

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/20/2012

Nomenclature

List of Fagaceae Genera

References to Fagaceae

  • Abbe, E. C. 1974. Flowers and inflorescences of the "Amentiferae". Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 40: 159-261.
  • Abrahamson, W. G. et.al. 1998. Gall-inducing insects provide insights into plant systematic relationships. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1159-1165.
  • Abrams, M. D. 2003. Where has all the white oak gone?. Bioscience 53: 927-939.
  • Abrams, M. D. 1992. Fire and the development of oak forests. Bioscience 42: 346-53.
  • Abrams, M. D. 1996. Distribution, historical development and ecophysiological attributes of oak species in the eastern United States. Ann. Sci. Forest. 53: 487-512.
  • Abrams, M. D. 1990. Adaptations and responses to drought in <em>Quercus</em> species of North America. Tree Physiology 6: 227-38.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Abrell, D. B.; Jackson, M. T. 1977. A decade of change in an old-growth beech-maple forest in Indiana. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 98: 22-32.
  • Abromeit, J. 1884. Uber die Anatomie des Eichenholzes. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 10: 209-281. (In German)
  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Aikman, J. M. 1934. The effect of low temperature on the germination and survival of native oaks. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 41: 89-93.
  • Aizen, A. M.; Kenigsten, A. 1990. Floral sex ratios in scrub oak (<em>Quercus ilicifolia</em>) vary with microtopography and stem height. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1364-8. (French summary)
  • Aizen, M. A.; Patterson, W. A. 1990. Acorn size and geographical range in the North American oaks. J. Biogeogr. 17: 327-32.
  • Aizen, M. A.; Woodcock, H. 1996. Effects of acorn size on seedling survival and growth in <em>Quercus rubra</em> following simulated spring freeze. Canad. J. Bot. 74(2): 308-14.
  • Aizen, M. A.; Woodcock, H. 1992. Latitudinal trends in acorn size in eastern North American species of <em>Quercus</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 70(6): 1218-22.
  • Allard, H. A. 1932. A progeny study of the so-called oak species <em>Quercus</em> <em>saulii</em>, with notes on other probable hybrids found in or near the District of Columbia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59: 267-77.
  • Allard, H. A. 1949. An analysis of seedling progeny of an individual of <em>Quercus saulii</em> compared with seedlings of a typical individual of the white oak (<em>Quercus alba</em>) and a typical rock chesnut oak (<em>Quercus montana</em>). Castanea 14: 109-17.
  • Allard, H. A. 1934. A supposed hybrid between the oak species <em>Q. rubra</em> and <em>ilicifolia</em>. Rhodora 36(426): 239-40.
  • Allard, H. A. 1942. The hybrid oak, x <em>Quercus rudkinii</em>, at Arlington, Virginia. Rhodora 44(524): 262-6.
  • Allen, R.; Farmer, R. E. 1977. Germination characterisitics of bear oak. S. J. Appl. Forest. 1: 19-20.
  • Amthor, J. S.; Gill, D. S.; Bormann, F. H. 1990. Autumnal laef conductance and apparent photosythesis by saplings and sprouts in a recently disturbed northern hardwood forest. Oecologia 84: 93-8.
  • Anagnostakis, S. L. 1987. Chestnut blight: the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycologia 79: 23-27.
  • Anagnostakis, S. L. 1996. The Chestnut Story. ()
  • Anagnostakis, S. L. 1978. The American chestnut: new hope for a fallen giant. Connecticut Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 777: 1-9.
  • Anagnostakis, S. L.; Hillman, B. 1992. Evolution of the chestnut tree and its blight. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 52: 2-10.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Anderson, L. M.; Clark, A. L.; Marx, D. H. 1983. Growth of oak seedlings with specific ectomycorrhizae in urban stress environments. J. Arboric. 9: 156-9.
  • Andresen, J. W. 1955. Viviparity in white oak. J. Forest. 53: 252.
  • Andresen, J. W. 1956. Bartram oak in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 83: 171-172.
  • Andresen, J. W. 1956. A large swamp white oak of the lower Raritan flood plain. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 83: 382-385.
  • Angelo, R.; Boufford, D. E. 2010. Atlas of the flora of New England: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Rhodora 112: 244-326.
  • Angelov, M. N. et.al. 1996. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species. Tree Physiology 16: 477-484.
  • Anonymous 1889. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 16: 123-4.
  • Anonymous 1974. Bur oak, <em>Quercus macrocarpa</em> beech family (Fagaceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 10(2): 30-1.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Ashe, W. W. 1923. The common names of some trees. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 39: 89-91.
  • Ashton, P. M. S.; Berlyn, G. P. 1994. A comparison of leaf physiology and anatomy of <em>Quercus</em> (section <em>Erythrobalanus</em>-Fagaceae) species in different light environments. Amer. J. Bot. 81(5): 589-97.
  • Auchmoody, L. R.; Smith, H. C. 1993. Survival of nothern red oak acorns after fall burning.
  • Auchmoody, L. R.; Smith, H. C.; Walters, R. S. 1993. Acorn production in northern red oak stands in northwestern Pennsylvania.
  • Auchmoody, L. R.; Smith, H. C.; Walters, R. S. 1994. Planting northern red oak acorns: is size and planting depth important?
  • Aufderheide, H. 1931. Chromosome numbers in <em>Fagus grandifolia</em> and <em>Quercus virginiana</em>. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 2(5): 45-52.
  • Avery, G. S. 1957. The dying oaks. Scientific American 196(5): 112-22. (also reprinted in Brooklyn Botanic Garden Contributions No. 151)
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Babcock, E. B. 1911. Walnut-oak hybrid experiments. Amer. Breed. Assoc. Rep. 6: 138-40.
  • Bailey, I. W. 1910. Notes on the wood structure of the Betulaceae and Fagaceae. Forest. Quart. 8: 178-185.
  • Balter, H.; Loeb, R. E. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-9.
  • Baltzer, J. L.; Thomas, S. C. 2005. Leaf optical responses to light and soil nutrient availability in temperate deciduous trees. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 214-223.
  • Baranski, M. J. 1975. An analysis of variation within white oak (<em>Quercus alba</em> L. (Ref. in Diss. Abstr. Int., B, 35(10):4779. 1975.)
  • Bard, G. E. 1952. Secondary succession on the piedmont of New Jersey. Ecol. Monogr. 22: 195-215.
  • Barden, L. S. 1985. Bear oak (<em>Quercus ilicifolia</em>) in North Carolina. Castanea 50: 121-2.
  • Barden, L. S. 1983. Size, age, and growth rate of trees in canopy gaps of a cove hardwood forest in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 48: 19-23.
  • Barker, M. J. et.al. 1997. Micropropagation of juvenile and mature American beech. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 51: 209-213.
  • Barnett, R. J. 1976. Interactions between tree squirrels and oaks and hickories: the ecology of seed predation. Ph.D. Dissertation Duke Univ., Durham, NC,
  • Barnett, R. J. 1977. The effect of burial by squirrels on germination and survival of oak and hickory nuts. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 98: 319-30.
  • Barrett, J. W.; Farnsworth, C. E.; Rutherford, W. Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60(9): 630-9.
  • Barrett, L. I. 1931. Influence of forest litter on germination and early survival of chestnut oak, <em>Quercus montana</em> Wild. Ecology 12: 476-484.
  • Batista, W. B.; Platt, W. J.; Macchiavelli, R. E. 1998. Demography of a shade-tolerant tree (<em>Fagus grandifolia</em>) in a hurricane-disturbed forest. Ecology 79: 38-53.
  • Battaglia, L. L.; Fore, S. A.; Sharitz, R. R. 2000. Seedling emergence, survival and size in relation to light and water availability in two bottomland hardwood species. J. Ecol. 88: 1041-1050.
  • Baxter, J. W. et.al. 1999. Ectomycorrhizal diversity and community structure in oak forest stands exposed to contrasting anthropogenic impacts. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 771-782.
  • Bazzaz, F. A.; Miao, S. L. 1993. Successional status, seed size, and responses of tree seedlings to CO2, light, and nutrients. Ecology 74: 104-12.
  • Beaman, B. A. 1981. Factors affecting the establishment, growth, and survival of white oak (<em>Quercus alba</em> L.) in an upland hardwood forest. Ph.D. Dissertation Duke Univ., Durham, NC225 p.
  • Beattie, R. K.; Diller, J. D. 1954. Fifty years of chestnut blight in America. J. Forest. 52: 323-9.
  • Beaudet, M.; Messier, C. 1998. Growth and morphological responses of yellow birch, sugar maple and beech seedlings growing under a natural light gradient. Canad. J. Forest Res. 28: 1007-1015.
  • Beck, L. C. 1848. Oaks of the State of New York. Amer. Quart. J. Agric. Sci. 7: 490-3.
  • Beckjord, P. R.; McIntosh, M. S. 1983. Growth and fungal retention by field-planted <em>Quercus rubra</em> seedlings inoculated with several ectomycorrhizal fungi. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110(3): 353-9.
  • Beckjord, P. R.; et al. et.al. 1983. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on growth and ectomycorrhizal formation of <em>Quercus alba, Q. rubra, Q. falcata,</em> and <em>Q. falcata</em> var. <em>pagodifolia</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2507-14.
  • Bednarz, Z.; Ptak, J. 1990. The influence of temperature and precipitation on ring widths of oak. Tree-Ring Bull. 50: 1-10.
  • Bennett, K. D. 1985. The spread of <em>Fagus grandifolia</em> across eastern North America during the last 18000 years. J. Biogeogr. 12: 147-64.
  • Benninghoff, W. S.; Gebben, A. I. 1960. Phytosociological studies of some beech-maple stands in Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 45: 83-91.
  • Berkeley, E. E. 1931. Marcescent leaves of certain species of <em>Quercus</em>. Bot. Gaz. 92: 85-93. (Also Acer, Fagus)
  • Bernard, J. M.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1967. Ecological and taxonomic information about <em>Quercus michauxii</em> Nutt. (swamp chestnut oak) in New Jersey Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94: 433-438.
  • Berridge, E. M. 1914. The structure of the flower of the Fagaceae, and its bearing on the affinities of the group. Ann. Bot. 28: 509-26.
  • Biagi, A.; Jensen, Richard J. 1995. The genus <em>Quercus</em> (Fagaceae) in Indiana: Phytogeography and a key to the species. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 104: 11-24.
  • Biocca, M.; Tainter, F. H.; Starkey, D. A.; Oak, S. W.; Williams, J. G. 1993. The persistence of oak decline in the western North Carolina Nantahala Mountains. Castanea 58: 178-84.
  • Birchenko, I. et.al. 2009. Biogeographical distribution of chloroplast diversity in northern red oak (<em>Quercus rubra</em> L.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 161: 134-145.
  • Blackman, D.; Ware, S. 1982. Soil moisture and the distribution of <em>Quercus prinus</em> and <em>Quercus rubra</em>. Castanea 47: 360-7.
  • Blaney, J. R.; Tryon, E. H.; Linsky, B. 1977. Effect of coal smoke on growth of four tree species. Castanea 42: 193-203.
  • Blue, M. P.; Jensen, Richard J. 1988. Positional and seasonal variation in oak (<em>Quercus</em>; Fagaceae) leaf morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 75(7): 939-47.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Brinkman, J. A. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 309-17.
  • Boerner, R. E.; Lord, T. R.; Peterson, J. C. 1988. Prescribed burning in the oak-pine forest of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: effects on growth and nutrient dynamics of two <em>Quercus</em> species. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 120: 108-19.
  • Bohn, K. K.; Nyland, R. D. 2003. Forecasting development of understory American beech after partial cutting in uneven-aged northern hardwood stands. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 180: 453-461.
  • Boman, J. S.; Casper, B. B. 1995. Differential postdispersal seed predation in disturbed and intact temperate forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 134: 107-116.
  • Bonner, F. T. 1968. Water uptake and germination of red oak acorns. Bot. Gaz. 129(1): 83-5.
  • Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of <em>Quercus</em>.
  • Borchert, R. 1975. Endogenous shoot growth rhythms and indeterminate shoot growth in oak. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 35: 152-7.
  • Bosema, I. 1979. Jays and oaks: an eco-ethological study of symbiosis. Behaviour 70: 1-117.
  • Bourdeau, P. F. 1954. Oak seedling ecology determining segregation of species in Piedmont oak-hickory forests. Ecol. Monogr. 24: 297-320.
  • Braham, R. R. 1977. Crown position and heterophylly in white oak. Michigan Bot. 16(3): 141-7.
  • Brandt, C. J.; Rhoades, R. W. 1973. Effects of limestone dust accumulation on lateral growth of forest trees. Environmental Pollution 4: 207-13.
  • Bray, J. R. 1960. A note on hybridization between <em>Quercus macrocarpa</em> Michx. and <em>Quercus bicolor</em> Willd. in Wisconsin. Canad. J. Bot. 38: 701-4.
  • Brett, D. W. 1964. The inflorescence of <em>Fagus</em> and <em>Castanea</em> and the evolution of the cupules of the Fagaceae. New Phyt. 63: 96-117.
  • Brewer, L. G. 1995. Ecology of survival and recovery from blight in American chestnut trees (<em>Castanea dentata</em> (Marsh.) Borkh.) in Michigan. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 122: 40-57.
  • Briggs, J. M.; Smith, K. G. 1989. Influence of habitat on acorn selection by <em>Peromyscus leucopus</em>. J. Mammal. 70: 35-43.
  • Britton, Elizabeth G. 1886. Plurality of embryos in <em>Quercus alba</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 95.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1881. Peculiarly-lobed leaves in <em>Quercus alba</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 8: 126.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1886. Note on <em>Quercus muhlenbergii</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 40-1.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1882. On a hybrid oak near Keyport, N.J. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 9: 13-5.
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  • Brownell, V. R. et.al. 1996. Recent discoveries of southern vascular plants at their northern limits in the granite barrens area of Lennox and Addington County, Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 110: 255-259.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Stearns, F. W. 1985. Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 167-75.
  • Brundrett, M.; Murase, G.; Kendrick, B. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 551-78. (French summary)
  • Bryant, F. C. et.al. 1996. Diets of female white-tailed deer in the cross-timbers region. Prairie Naturalist 28: 125-140.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1941. Multi-seeded acorns. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 34: 99-101.
  • Buchholz, K. 1983. Initial responses of pine and oak to wildfire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens Plains. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 91-6.
  • Buckley, D. S. 1994. Relationships among competing vegetation, herbivores, and environmental conditions affecting northern red oak (<em>Quercus rubra</em> L.) regeneration. Ph.D. Dissertation Michigan Tech. Univ. Houghton, MI,
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  • Burger, William C. 1975. The species concept in <em>Quercus</em>. Taxon 24: 45-50.
  • Burk, C. John 1965. Segregation in three generations of progeny of the hybrid oak <em>Quercus</em> x <em>rudkini</em> (<em>Quercus marilandica</em> x <em>Q. phellos</em>). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 81: 50-3.
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  • Canham, C. D. 1990. Suppression and release during canopy recruitment in <em>Fagus grandifolia</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 1-7. (Also Acer)
  • Canham, C. D. 1984. Canopy recruitment in shade tolerant tree species: the response of <em>Acer saccharum</em> and <em>Fagus grandifolia</em> to canopy openings. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY174 p.
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  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus palustris</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus marilandica</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus falcata</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus phellos</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus prinus</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus coccinea</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus stellata</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Quercus velutina</em>. ()
  • Carpenter, I. W.; Guard, A. T. 1954. Anatomy and morphology of the seedling roots of four species of the genus <em>Quercus</em>. J. Forest. 52: 269-74.
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  • Carvell, K. L. 1967. The response of understory oak seedlings to release after partial cutting.
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  • Chabot, B. F.; Lewis, A. R. 1976. Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in northern red oak. Photosynthetica 10: 130-5.
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  • Clinton, G. P. 1913. Chestnut bark disease. Connecticut Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1912: 359-453.
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  • Coker, W. C. 1904. Multiseeded acorns. Bot. Gaz. 37: 61-62.
  • Coker, W. C. 1912. The seedling of the live oak and white oak. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 28: 34-41.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. <em>Fagus grandifolia</em>. ()
  • Cole, A. M.; Ware, S. A. 1997. Forest vegetation, edaphic factors, and successional direction in the Central Piedmont of Virginia. Castanea 62: 100-11.
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  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Chestnut oak. Amer. Forests 48: 320-1.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Scarlet oak. Amer. Forests 48: 512-3.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Southern red oak. Amer. Forests 49: 544-5.
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  • Cook, E. R.; Jacoby, G. C. 1977. Tree-ring drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York. Science 198(4315): 399-401. (Pinus, Quercus, & Tsuga used for dendrochronology)
  • Cooper, A. W.; Mercer, E. P. 1977. Morphological variation in <em>Fagus grandifolia</em> Ehrh. in North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 93: 136-49.
  • Cooperrider, M. 1957. Introgressive hybridization between <em>Quercus marilandica</em> and <em>Q. velutina</em> in Iowa. Amer. J. Bot. 44: 804-10.
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  • Croizat, L. C. M. 1936. An interesting oak in New York City, with brief notes on <em>Quercus</em> x <em>richteri</em> Baen. Torreya 36: 139-142.
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  • Crow, T. R. 1992. Population dynamics and growth patterns for a cohort of northern red oak (<em>Quercus rubra</em>) seedlings. Oecologia 91: 192-200.
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  • Crow, T. R.; Johnson, W. C.; Adkisson, C. S. 1994. Fire and recruitment of <em>Quercus</em> in a postagricultural field. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 131(1): 84-97.
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