New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus cathartica

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/11/2013

Nomenclature

List of Rhamnaceae Genera

References to Rhamnaceae

  • Baillon, H. 1875. Monographie des Celastracees et des Rhamnacees. Hist. Pl. 6: 1-92. (In French)
  • Beille, L. 1902. Recherches sur le developpment floral des Disciflores. Ph.D. Thesis Bordeaux177 p.
  • Bennek, C. 1958. Die morphologische Beurteilung der Staub- und Blumenblatter der Rhamnaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 77: 423-457. (In German)
  • Bolmgren, K.; Oxelman, B. 2004. Generic limits in <em>Rhamnus</em> L. s.l. (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies. Taxon 53: 383-390.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1964. The genera of Rhamnaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 439-63.
  • Brown, W. T. et.al. 2001. Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21: 189-196.
  • Burnham, K. M.; Lee, T. D. 2010. Canopy gaps facilitate establishment, growth, and reproduction of invasive <em>Frangula alnus</em> in a <em>Tsuga canadensis</em> dominated forest. Biological Invasions 12: 1509-1520.
  • Catling, P. M.; Porebski, Z. S. 1994. The history of invasion and current status of glossy buckthorn, <em>Rhamnus frangula</em>, in southern Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 108: 305-310.
  • Clebsch, E. E. C.; Walker, G. L.; Wofford, B. E. 1989. Noteworthy collections, Tennessee. Castanea 54: 48-50.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1993. <em>Ceanothus americana</em>. ()
  • Coles, I. 1872. Glen Cove, L.I. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 3: 47.
  • Converse, C. K. 1984. <em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> and <em>Rhamnus frangula</em>.
  • Cunard, C.; Lee, T. D. 2009. Is patience a virtue? Succession, light, and the death of invasive glossy buckthorn (<em>Frangula alnus</em>). Biological Invasions 11: 577-586.
  • Dugal, A. W. 1989. Unusual forms of the black buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus frangula</em>) in Ottawa-Carleton. Trail & Landscape 23: 119-121.
  • Frappier, B.; Eckert, R. T.; Lee, T. D. 2004. Experimental removal of the non-indigenous shrub <em>Rhamnus frangula</em> (Glossy Buckthorn): effects on native herbs and woody seedlings. Northeastern Naturalist 11: 333-342.
  • Frappier, B.; Eckert, R. T.; Lee, T. D. 2003. Potential impacts of the invasive exotic shrub <em>Rhamnus frangula</em> L. (glossy buckthorn) on forests of southern New Hampshire. Northeastern Naturalist 10: 277-296.
  • Freeman, C. C. et.al. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Fross, D. 2006. Ceanothus. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 272 pages. (ISBN 0881927627)
  • Gemoll, K. 1902. Anatomisch-systematische Untersuchung des Blattes der Rhamneen aus den Triben: Rhamneen, Colletieen und Guanieen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 12: 351-424.
  • Gil-Ad, N. L.; Reznicek, A. A. 1997. Evidence for hybridization of two old world <em>Rhamnus</em> species - <em>R. cathartica</em> and <em>R. utilis</em> (Rhamnaceae) - in the new world. Rhodora 99: 1-22.
  • Gill, D. S.; Marks, P. L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization of old fields in central New York. Ecol. Monogr. 61: 183-205.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1995. Bumblebees (<em>Bombus</em> sp.) visiting flowers of Buckthorn <em>Rhamnus frangula</em> L.
  • Godwin, H. 1943. <em>Frangula alnus</em> Mill. (<em>Rhamnus frangula</em> L.). J. Ecol. 31: 77-92.
  • Gourley, L. C. 1985. A study of the ecology and spread of buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L.) with particular reference to the University of Wisconsin Arboretum. M.S. Thesis Univ. Wisconsin, Madison,
  • Grubov, V. I. 1950. De systemate generis <em>Rhamnus</em> L. (Primarily in Latin). Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada SSSR 12: 123-33.
  • Grubov, V. I. 1949. The monographic survey of the genus <em>Rhamnus</em> L. s.l. Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyss. Rast. 8: 241-423. (In Russian)
  • Hardig, T. M.; Soltis, P. S.; Soltis, D. E. 2000. Diversification of the North American shrub genus <em>Ceanothus</em> (Rhamnaceae): conflicting phylogenies from nuclear ribosomal DNA and chloroplast DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 108-123.
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin I. Oecologia 80: 356-367.
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin II. Oecologia 80: 368-373.
  • Heidorn, R. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: Exotic buckthorns- common buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L.), glossy buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus frangula</em> L.), Dahurian buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus davurica</em> Pall.). Natural Areas Journal 11: 216-7.
  • Heppeler, F. 1928. Beitroge zur Systematik der Gattung <em>Rhamnus</em> mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des Emodinvorkommens. Arch. Pharm. (Berlin) 266: 152-73.
  • Herron, P.M. et.al. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Herzog, T. 1903. Anatomisch-systematische Untersuchung des Blattes der Rhamneen aus den Triben: Ventilagineen, Zizypheen und Rhamneen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 15: 95-207.
  • Hess, W. J.; Stearn, W. T. 1981. A correction involving <em>Rhamnus citrifolia</em> (Weston) Hess & Stearn. Taxon 30: 298.
  • Hess, W. J.; Stearn, W. T. 1979. The identity of <em>Cornus citrifolia</em> Weston. Taxon 28(5/6): 553-556. (See Taxon 30:298. 1981.)
  • Holm, T. 1906. <em>Ceanothus americanus</em> L., and <em>ovatus</em> Desf.; a morphological and anatomical study. Amer. J. Sci. 22: 523-30.
  • Howell, J. A.; Blackwell, W. H. 1977. The history of <em>Rhamnus frangula</em> (Glossy Buckthorn) in the Ohio flora. Castanea 42: 111-5.
  • Howell, J. T. 1939. Studies in <em>Ceanothus</em> I-V. Leafl. W. Bot. 2: 159-65, 202-8, 228-40, 259-62, 285-9.
  • Johnston, M. C. 1971. Studies in the Rhamnaceae: relationships in the tribe Rhamneae. Amer. J. Bot. 58(5): 464. (Abstract)
  • Jones, J. H. 1981. Variation of foliar features in the Rhamnaceae: tribes Rhamneae and Zizypheae. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 91: 110. (Abstract)
  • Juel, H. O. 1929. Beitroge zur Morphologie und Entwickelungsgeschichte der Rhamnaceen. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 7(3): 1-13.
  • Kline, V. 1981. Control of honeysuckle and buckthorn in oak forests. Restor. Manag. Notes 1: 18.
  • Kozo-Poljanski, V. 1924. Ueber die Anwendung der anatomischen Methode in der Systematik der Angiospermen. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow Biol. II. 32: 289-310.
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  • Lacombe, N. R.; Youngken, H. W. 1943. Studies on the anatomy of <em>Rhamnus lanceolata</em> Pursh and <em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 32: 193-202.
  • Leitner, L. A. 1985. An alien shrub in a changing landscape: the European buckthorn (<em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L.) in southeastern Wisconsin. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Milwaukee,
  • Lichvar, R. W.; Dorn, R. D. 1980. <em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L. (Rhamnaceae). Madrono 27(3): 140.
  • Lindau, G. 1891. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger Samen. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 9: 274-9.
  • Malicky, H.; Sobhian, R.; Zwolfer, H. 1970. Investigtions on the possibilities of a biological control of <em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L. in Canada: host ranges, feeding sites, and phenology of insects associated with European Rhamnaceae. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie-Entomologie 65: 77-97.
  • Maw, M. G. 1981. <em>Rhamnus cathartica</em> L., common or european buckthorn (Rhamnaceae). In: Biological control programs against insects and weeds in Canada. Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, United Kingdom. , 185-9 pages.
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  • Miers, J. 1861. On the tribe Colletieae, with some observations on the structure of the seed in the family of the Rhamnaceae. Contr. Bot. 1: 232-311.
  • Myers, J. A. et.al. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
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  • Ogle, D. W. 1989. Barns Chapel Swamp: an unusual arbor-vitae (<em>Thuja occidentalis</em> L.) site in Washington County, Virginia. Castanea 54: 200-202. (other spp. discussed)
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