New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Poaceae

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 07/09/2013

List of Poaceae Genera

References to Poaceae

  • Adati, S.; Shiotani, I. 1962. The cytotaxonomy of the grass Miscanthus and its phylogenetic status. Bull. Fac. Agric. Mie Univ. 25: 1-24.
  • Aiken, S. G. 1986. The distinct morpholoy and germination of the grains of two species of Wild Rice (Zizania, Poaceae). Canad. Field-Naturalist 100: 237-240.
  • Aiken, S. G. et.al. 1997. Biodiversity among Festuca (Poaceae) in North America: diagnostic evidence from DELTA and clustering programs, and an INTKEY package for interactive, illustrated identification and information retrieval. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1527-1555.
  • Ailstock, M. S.; Norman, C. M.; Bushmann, P. J. 2001. Common reed Phragmites australis: control and its effects upon biodiversity in freshwater nontidal wetlands. Restoration Ecol. 9: 49-59.
  • Alfonse, A. V.; Balasundaram, N. 2006. On the taxonomy of the members of 'Saccharum complex'. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 35-41.
  • Amen, R. D. et.al. 1970. The nature of seed dormancy and germination in the salt marsh grass Distichlis spicata. New Phyt. 69: 1005-1013.
  • Anderson, D. E. 1961. Taxonomy and the distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State J. Sci. 36: 1-96.
  • Anderson, J. E.; Reznicek, A. A. 1994. Glyceria maxima (Poaceae) in New England. Rhodora 96: 97-101.
  • Angelo, R.; Boufford, D. E. 1998. Atlas of the flora of New England: Poaceae. Rhodora 100: 101-233.
  • Archibald, C.; Dremann, C. 2004. Cleaning grass seeds. Native Plants J. 5: 51-52.
  • Badger, K. S.; Ungar, I. A. 1994. Seed bank dynamics in an inland salt marsh, with special emphasis on the halophyte Hordeum jubatum L. Int. J. Plant Sci. 155: 66-72.
  • Baiser, B. et.al. 2008. A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey. Biological Invasions 10: 785-795.
  • Barden, L. S. 1987. Invasion of Microstegium vimineum Poaceae an exotic annual shade-tolerant C-4 grass into a North Carolina USA floodplain. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 118: 40-45.
  • Bartgis, R. 1991. Cypripedium candidum and six other additions to the known flora of Maryland. Castanea 56: 220-1.
  • Bartlett, E.; Novak, S. J.; Mack, R. N. 2002. Genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae): differentiation in the eastern United States. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 602-612.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 1998. Effect of seasonal temperature changes on germination responses of buried seeds of Agalinis fasciculata (Scrophulariaceae), and a comparison with 12 other summer annuals native to eastern North America. Plant Species Biol. 13: 77-84.
  • Baum, B. R.; Bailey, L. G. 1990. Key and synopsis of North American Hordeum species. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2433-2442.
  • Beddows, A. R. 1961. Holcus lanatus L.
  • Beddows, A. R. 1959. Dactylis glomerata L.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1943. The North American variations of Distichlis spicata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 638-650.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1955. The four subfamilies of the Gramineae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 82: 196-197.
  • Bell, H. L.; Columbus, J. T. 2008. Proposal for an expanded Distichlis (Poaceae, Chlorideae): support from molecular, morphological, and anatomical characters. Syst. Bot. 33: 536-551.
  • Belzile, F. et.al. 2010. Seeds contribute strongly to the spread of the invasive genotype of the common reed (Phragmites australis). Biological Invasions 12: 2243-2250.
  • Blattner, F. R. 2006. Multiple intercontinental dispersals shaped the distribution area of Hordeum (Poaceae).
  • Blattner, F. R. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of Hordeum (Poaceae) as inferred by nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 33: 289-299.
  • Borrill, M. 1955. Breeding systems and compatibility in Glyceria. Nature 175: 561-563.
  • Bosy, J. L.; Reader, R. J. 1995. Mechanisms underlying the suppression of forb seedling emergence by grass (Poa pratensis) litter. Funct. Ecol. 9: 635-639.
  • Boydston, R. A. 1990. Time of emergence and seed production of longspine sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus) and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris).
  • Boyle, W. S. 1945. A cytotaxonomic study of the North American species of Melica. Madrono 8: 1-26.
  • Bradley, B. A. et.al. 2010. Climate change increases risk of plant invasion in the eastern United States. Biological Invasions 12: 1855-1872.
  • Brisson, J. et.al. 2008. Evidence of sexual reproduction in the invasive common reed (Phragmites australis subsp. australis; Poaceae) in eastern Canada: a possible consequence of global warming? Rhodora 110: 225-230.
  • Brown, W. T. et.al. 2001. Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21: 189-196.
  • Brownell, V. R. et.al. 1996. Recent discoveries of southern vascular plants at their northern limits in the granite barrens area of Lennox and Addington County, Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 110: 255-259.
  • Bruner, J. L.; Schults, E. 1987. Systematics of the Schizachyrium scoparium (Poaceae) complex in North America. Ph.D. Dissertation Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH167 p.
  • Bryant, F. C. et.al. 1996. Diets of female white-tailed deer in the cross-timbers region. Prairie Naturalist 28: 125-140.
  • Campbell, C. S. 1983. Systematics of Andropogon virginicus complex (Gramineae). J. Arnold Arbor 64: 171-254.
  • Campbell, C. S. 1985. The subfamilies and tribes of Gramineae (Poaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor 66: 123-199.
  • Cerros-Tlatilpa, R. et.al. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Aristida and relatives (Poaceae, Aristidoideae) based on noncoding chloroplast (trnL-F, rpl16) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 98: 1868-1886.
  • Chambers, R. M.; Meyerson, L. A.; Saltonstall, K. 1999. Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Botany 64: 261-273.
  • Chambliss, C. E. 1940. The botany and history of Zizania aquatica L. (Wild Rice). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30: 185-205.
  • Chase, A. 1964. First book of grasses. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C..
  • Cheplick, G. P. 2005. Patterns in the distribution of American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata) and the density and reproduction of annual plants on a coastal beach. Plant Ecology 180: 57-67.
  • Cheplick, G. P. 2005. Biomass partitioning and reproductive allocation in the invasive, cleitogamous grass Microstegium vimineum: influence of the light environment. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 214-224.
  • Cheplick, G. P. 2006. A modular aproach to biomass allocation in an invasive annual (Microstegium vimineum; Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 93: 539-545.
  • Cheplick, G. P. 2006. Seed rain, transient seeds banks, and seedling recruitment of annual on a coastal beach. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133: 379-392.
  • Cheplick, G. P. 2010. Limits to local spatial spread in a highly invasive annual grass (Microstegium vimineum). Biological Invasions 12: 1759-1771.
  • Cheplick, G. P.; Demetri, H. 1999. Impact of saltwater spray and sand deposition on the coastal annual Triplasis purpurea (Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 86: 703-710.
  • Cheplick, G. P.; Fox, J. 2011. Density-dependent growth and reproduction of Microstegium vimineum in contrasting light environments. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138: 62-72.
  • Cheplick, G. P.; White, T. P. 2002. Saltwater spray as an agent of natural selection: no evidence of local adaptation within a coastal population of Triplasis purpurea (Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 623-631.
  • Cheplick, G. P.; Wickstrom, V. M. 1999. Assessing the potential for competition on a coastal beach and the significance of variable seed mass in Triplasis purpurea. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 296-306.
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Chiapella, J. 2007. A molecular phylogenetic study of Deschampsia (Poaceae: Aveneae) inferred from nuclear ITS and plastid trnL sequence data: support for the recognition of Avenella and Vahlodea. Taxon 56: 55-64.
  • Christen, D. C.; Matlack, G. R. 2009. The habitat and conduit functions of roads in the spread of three invasive plant species. Biological Invasions 11: 453-465. (Microstegium vimenium, Rosa multiflora, Tussilago farfara)
  • Church, G. L. 1952. The genus Torreyochloa. Rhodora 54: 197-200.
  • Church, G. L. 1949. A cytotaxonomic study of Glyceria and Puccinellia. Amer. J. Bot. 36: 155-165.
  • Church, G. L. 1967. Taxonomic and generic relationships of eastern North American species of Elymus with setaceous glumes. Rhodora 69: 121-162.
  • Cialdella, A. M. et.al. 2007. A phylogeny of Piptochaetium (Poaceae: Pooideae: Stipeae) and related genera based on a combined analysis including trnL-F, rpl16, and morphology. Syst. Bot. 32: 545-559.
  • Cialdella, A. M.; Giussani, L. M. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Piptochaetium (Poaceae, Pooideae, Stipeae): evidence from morphological data.
  • Clark, L. G.; Zhang, W; Wendel, J. F. 1995. A phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae) based on ndhF data. Syst. Bot. 20: 436-460.
  • Clausen, Robert T. 1952. Suggestion for the assignment of Torryochloa to Puccinellia. Rhodora 54: 42-45.
  • Clayton, W. D. 1968. The correct name of the Common Reed. Taxon 7: 168-169.
  • Clevering, Olga A.; Lissner, J. 1999. Taxonomy, chromosome numbers, clonal diversity and population dynamics of (Phragmites australis). Aquatic Botany 64: 185-208.
  • Cole, P. G.; Weltzin, J. F. 2005. Light limitation creates patchy distribution of an invasive grass in eastern deciduous forests. Biological Invasions 7: 477-488.
  • Cole, P. G.; Weltzin, J. F. 2004. Environmental correlates of the distribution and abundance of Microstegium vimineum, in east Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 3: 545-562.
  • Collins, B. S.; Quinn, J. A. 1982. Displacement of Andropogon scoparius on the New Jersey piedmont by the successional shrub Myrica pensylvanica. Amer. J. Bot. 69: 680-9.
  • Cope, E. A. 1994. Further notes on beachgrass (Ammophila) in northeastern North America. New York Flora Association Newsletter 5: 5-7.
  • Culumber, C. M. et.al. 2011. Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes assessed by chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles. Pl. Syst. Evol. 294: 207-225.
  • Davis, J. I. 1983. Phenotypic plasticity and the selection of taxonomic characters in Puccinellia (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 8: 341-353.
  • Davy, A. J. 1980. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. J. Ecol. 68: 1075-1096.
  • DeMeester, J. E.; Richter, D. 2010. Restoring restoration: removal of the invasive plant Microstegium vimineum from a North Carolina wetland. Biological Invasions 12: 781-793.
  • Donadio, S. et.al. 2009. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of Pennisetum and Cenchrus (Poaceae-Paniceae) based on the trnL-F, rpl16 chloroplast markers. Taxon 58: 392-404.
  • Dore, W. G. 1947. Glyceria maxima in Canada. Sida 3: 83-85.
  • Dore, W. G. 1969. Wild Rice. Can. Dep. Agric. Res. Publ. 1393: 1-84.
  • Doring, E. et.al. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships in the Aveneae/Poeae complex (Pooideae, Poaceae). Kew Bull. 62: 407-424.
  • Dorr, L. J.; Nino, S. M. 2001. Arthraxon (Poaceae: Andropogoneae) new to South America. Sida 19: 1191-1193.
  • Doust, A. N. et.al. 2007. Congruence, conflict, and polyploidization shown by nuclear and chlorplast markers in the monophyletic "bristle clade" (Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 32: 531-544.
  • Duvall, M. R.; Biesboer, D. D. 1988. Nonreciprocal hybridization failure in crosses between annual wild-rice species (Zizania palustris x Z. aquatica: Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 13: 229-334.
  • Duvall, M. R.; Noll, J. D.; Minn, A. H. 2001. Phylogenetics of Paniceae (Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1988-1992.
  • Eames, E. H. 1916. Some varieties and forms of Connecticut plants. Rhodora 18: 239-240.
  • Egler, F. E. 1990. High-temperature effects on germination and survival of weed seeds in soil. Weed Science 38: 429-435.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1999. A rhizomatous, perennial form of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus in New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 352-358.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G.; Kourtev, P. S.; Huang, W. Z. 2001. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecol. Applic. 11: 1287-1300.
  • Ekstam, B.; Johannesson, R.; Milberg, P. 1999. The effect of light and number of diurnal temperature fluctuations on germination of Phragmites australis. Seed Sci. Res. 9: 165-170.
  • Eppley, S. M. 2001. Gender-specific selection during early life history stages in the dioecious grass Distichlis spicata. Ecology 82: 2022-2031.
  • Fairbrothers, D. E. 1960. Naturalization of Eragrostis curvula (weeping love grass) in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 87: 216-218.
  • Fairbrothers, D. E.; Gray, J. R. 1972. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Gramineae) in the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 97-100.
  • Fandrich, L.; Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2006. Factors affecting germination of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed.
  • Fang, X. et.al. 2004. Mode of polination, pollen germination, and seed set in smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora, Poaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 395-401.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1924. A study of the genus Zizania. Rhodora 26: 153-160.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1949. Some notes on Echinochloa. Rhodora 51: 1-3.
  • Fernald, M. L.; Weatherby, C. A. 1916. The genus Puccinellia in eastern North America. Rhodora 18: 1-23.
  • Ferren, W. R.; Good, R. E. 1977. Habitat, morphology and phenology of southern wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) from the Wading River in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 392-396.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America. Volume 24. Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 911 pages. (ISBN 9780195310719)
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003. Flora of North America. Volume 25. Poaceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 783 pages. (ISBN 0195167481)
  • Flory, S. L. 2010. Management of Microstegium vimineum invasions and recovery of resident plant communities. Restoration Ecol. 18: 103-112.
  • Flory, S. L.; Clay, K. 2010. Non-native grass invasion alters native plant composition in experimental communities. Biological Invasions 12: 1285-1294.
  • Fortner, A. M.; Weltzin, J. F. 2007. Competative hierarchy for four common old-field plant species depends on resource identity and availability. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 166-176.
  • Fortune, P. M. et.al. 2008. Molecular phylogeny and reticulate origins of the polyploid Bromus species from section Genea (Poaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 454-464.
  • Freckmann, R.; Lelong, M. G. 2002. Nomenclatural changes and innovations in Panicum and Dichanthelium (Poaceae: Paniceae). Sida 20: 161-174.
  • Freter, E. L. 1955. A cytotaxonomic study of Bouteloua curtipendula and B. uniflora. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 82: 121-130.
  • Gandhi, K. N.; Barkworth, M. E. 2003. Nomenclatural and taxonomic review of knotroot bristle grass (Setaria parviflora, Gramineae). Rhodora 105: 197-204.
  • Ge, S. et.al. 2002. A phylogeny of the rice tribe Oryzeae (Poaceae) based on MATK sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1967-1972.
  • Gibson, D. J.; Spyreas, G.; Benedict, J. 2002. Life history of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an invasive grass in southern Illinois. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 207-219.
  • Gifford, A. L. S.; Ferdy, J. B.; Molofsky, J. 2002. Genetic composition and morphological variation among populations of the invasive grass, Phalaria arundinacea. Canad. J. Bot. 80: 779-785.
  • Gillespie, L. J. et.al. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in subtribe Poinae (Poaceae, Poeae) based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnT-trnL-trnF sequences. Botany 86: 938-967.
  • Gillespie, L. J.; Soreng, R. J. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of the bluegrass genus Poa based on cpDNA restriction site data. Syst. Bot. 30: 84-105.
  • Gonocharov, N. P. 2011. Genus Triticum L. taxonomy: the present and future. Pl. Syst. Evol. 295: 1-11.
  • Gould, F. W. 1979. The genus Bouteloua (Poaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 348-416.
  • Gould, F. W. et.al. 1972. A revision of Echinochloa in the United States. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 87: 36-59.
  • Gould, F. W.; Clark, C. A. 1978. Dichanthelium (Poaceae) in the United States and Canada. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 1088 - 1132.
  • Gould, F. W.; Kapadia, Z. J. 1964. Biosystematic studies in the Bouteloua curtipendula complex II. Taxonomy.
  • Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 373-457.
  • Gray, J. R.; Quinn, J. A.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1969. Leaf epidermis morphology in populations of the Danthonia sericea complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 96: 525-530.
  • Greene, C. W. 1984. Sexual and apomitic reproduction in Calamagrostis (Graminaceae) from eastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 285-293.
  • Greene, C. W. 1980. The systematics of Calamagrostis (Gramineae) in eastern North America. Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA,
  • Greene, C. W. 1987. Calamagrostis pickeringii in Maine. Rhodora 89: 333-336.
  • Guo, Y. L.; Ge, S. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Oryzeae (Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 1548-1558.
  • Gustafson, D. J.; Peterson, P. M. 2007. Re-examination of Muhlenbergia capillaris, M. expansa, and M. sericea (Poaceae: Muhlenbergiinae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 85-89.
  • Gutteridge, R. L. 1954. Glyceria maxima on the Mississippi River, Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 68: 133-135.
  • Hansen, M. J.; Wilson, S. D. 2006. Is management of an invasive grass Agropyron cristatum contingent on environmental variation? J. Applied Ecol. 43: 269-280.
  • Hanson, A. A.; Hill, H. D. 1953. The meiotic behavior of hexaploid orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 80: 113-122.
  • Hartig, E. K. 1984. Phragmites fire ecology. Proc. Ann. Meet. Assoc. Amer. Geographers 1984: 3 pp.
  • He, Z. et.al. 2011. Greater seasonal carbon gain across a broad temperature range contributes to the invasive potential of Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae: reed canary grass) over the native sedge Carex stricta (Cyperaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 98: 20-30.
  • Heinken, T. 2000. Dispersal of plants by a dog in a deciduous forest. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 449-467.
  • Helfgott, D. M.; Mason-Gamer, R. J. 2004. The evolution of North American Elymus (Triticeae, Poaceae) allotetraploids: evidence from phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene sequences. Syst. Bot. 29: 850-861.
  • Hempel, W. 1970. Taxonomische und chlorogische Untersuchungen an Arten von Melica L. subgen. Melica. Feddes Repert. 81: 131-145. (In German)
  • Hill, H. D. 1965. Karyology of species of Bromus, Festuca and Arrhenatherum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 92: 192-197.
  • Hilu, K. W. 1984. Leaf epidermes of Andropogon sect. Leptopogon (Poaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 9: 247-257.
  • Hilu, K. W.; Alice, L. A. 1999. Evolutionary implications of matK indels in Poaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1735-1741.
  • Hodkinson, T. R. et.al. 2002. Phylogenetics of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers. J. Pl. Res. 115(5, Fascicle 1121): 381-392.
  • Holdredge, C.; Bertness, M. D. 2011. Litter legacy increases the competpetitive advantage of invasive Phragmites australis) in New England wetlands. Biological Invasions 13: 423-433.
  • Holubowicz, R. et.al. 1992. Internal seed structure of selected vegetable species. Acta Botanica Hungarica 37: 267-277.
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  • Horton, J. L.; Neufeld, H. S. 1998. Photosynthetic responses of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, a shade-tolerant, C4 grass, to variable light environments. Oecologia 114: 11-19.
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  • Hunt, D. M.; Zaremba, Robert E. 1992. The northeastward spread of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae) into New York and adjacent states. Rhodora 94: 167-170.
  • Ingram, A. L.; Doyle, J. J. 2004. Is Eragrostis monophyletic? Insights from nuclear and plastid sequence data. Syst. Bot. 29: 545-552.
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  • Kellogg, E. A. et.al. 2009. A phylogeny of Setaria (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae) and related genera based on the chloroplast gene ndhF. Int. J. Plant Sci. 170: 117-131.
  • Kern, V. G. et.al. 2008. Inflorescence structure in species of Spartina Schrb. (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Cynodontaea). Pl. Syst. Evol. 273: 51-61.
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  • Kirk, H. et.al. 2011. Long-distance dispersal and high genetic diversity are implicated in the invasive spread of the common reed, Phragmites australis (Poaceae), in northeastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 98: 1180-1190.
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